Vohu Manah

Vohu Manah, in Pahlavi: Vohuman, or Good Spirit, in the persian mythologyensures the presence of God in the soul of the just, and leads them to Paradise. His equivalent is the bovine (the bull or cow which provides the urine or milk to be mixed with the homa of the sacrifice). He is lord of fifth creation, … Read more


Thraetona conquered Dahaka, whom he chained to Mount Demavand who Kersasp was to kill at the end of the world, is important in the role as the universal king. When he divides the world between his three sons, Salm, Toz, and Erji, he grants them wishes. The first asks for wealth, the second for valiance, … Read more


Sroash is a lesser divinity who personifies Obedience and also is the guardian of prayer. He along with others were invoked by Zoroaster a number of times as the ‘other Ahuras’ in the Gathas. Sraosh accompanying Mithra and Rashnu held the scales of justice which judge the soul according to previous thoughts, words, and acts to determine whether it was worthy … Read more

spenta mainyu

Spenta Mainyu is the Holy Spirit of Ahura Mazda. In Zoroaster’s initial vision the first act which he conceived Ahura Mazda performing was the evocation of the six lesser divinities through his Holy Spirit, Spenta Mainyu. It has been theorized by some scholars, particularly Maneckji Dhalla, that Ahura Mazda was hypothetically the father of the twin Spirits (Y … Read more

khsathra vairya

Khsathra Vairya, Desirable Dominion, or Ksathra (Power), is third in the hierarchy, and would appear to be concerned with war since he protects metals, but according to the Bundahishn his role is the defender of the poor. This is partially due because of the radical change which the role mythology of war underwent in Zoroastrian Persia (see Zoroastrianism); the … Read more


Daevas in the persian mythology were warrior-gods, gods of the martial arts, wheeling destructive forces, and caring for little less that their prowess and fame. They were the opposite of the ethical Ahuras. Zoroaster used this classification when he separated the Indo-Iranian gods. A.G.H. Source: Boyce, Mary, Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, New York, Routledge, 2002, p. 11