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Asha, as a concept, had ethical implications. Its qualities included truth, honesty, loyalty, and courage, all of which were thought to be proper for mankind. Virtue was considered belonging to the natural order, vice was its opposite. The original sense and meaning of this term is difficult to translate as different English terms render different contexts. The most appropriate translation seems to be order when asha refers to the physical world, and truth or righteousness when referring to the moral world.
The term asha is opposite of the term drug. The Avestan, Stone Age, people were judged by their morality; a man displaying asha behavior was called an ashavan as opposed to his counterpart, drugvan. A.G.H.
Boyce, Mary, Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, New York, Routledge, 2002, p. 8
and witchcraft Great
and present Beliefs People
and sects Rituals
and texts Shamanism