King Tutankhamun


King Tutankhamun was a teenager pharaoh that reigned at the close of the 18th Dynasty and that was a time when Egypt was flowing in wealth and had tremendous dominance over other nations.


Egyptian’s Wealth Before Tutankhamun

Prior to this time, Egypt has blossomed for several years, maintaining the traditions devolved to them before the now popular Giza structures were constructed. However, during the reign of Tutankhamun, Egypt had gotten hold and of the fabled gold mines of Nubia on the south and had won several towns in Mediterranean.


Akhenaten’s Wicked Rule

The reign of Tutankhamun came at a time when there was distress all over Egypt. A king called Akhenaten, who was Tutankhamun’s relative (probably his father or half- brother) had upturned the conventional practice by asking citizens to bow to Athens, the sun god. He shut the temples and destroyed all the images of Amun,, a well-known god with dreadful priests.

Akhenaten the tyrannical pharaoh also changed Egypt’s capital to a desert on the West, remote and away from the river Nile. He named this new capital Akhenaten and coerced over 20,000 persons to construct a new city altogether from the scratch.



Not quite long, this wicked king died and Tutankhamun ascended the throne. He was a teenager then and that was quite big an office for a small boy of his age. Tutankhamun was only eight years old which got all his chiefs and subordinates disturbed again. How can such a young lad be crowned a pharaoh? Can he effectively manage the affairs of a big country like Egypt? And how will he defend the country from invasions and attacks from her perennial foes?

Tut’s principal subjects seemed to have given him quality advise and worked assiduously to get Egypt on the right track. To get things started the capital need be taken back to the living river Nile. Tutankhamun has come to symbolize a return of rationality to Egypt.



All of a sudden, young Pharaoh Tutankhamun gave up the ghost and what really caused it couldn’t be ascertained. It is very possible a terminal infection resulted from his broken limb when he had an accident. Or perhaps it was malaria fever that caused it.

However, his death posed a problem for Egypt at that time because there was no tomb prepared for him as no one could have preempted his death.



The curse of Tutankhamun is one of the most popular curses known all through Egypt. Since the young Pharaoh’s tomb was discovered in the tomb of the Kings, there are rumors that those who ventured to tamper with the Tutankhamun’s tomb are beguiled with a dangerous curse.

Although not as drastic as killing mummies, it is largely reported that most people linked to excavating the tomb subsequently fell under the curse and died under questionable situations. The notion gained ground because some of those who opened the tomb gave up the ghost a little while after doing so.

The curse of Tutankhamun was not just peculiar to Tutankhamun but to all pharaohs, as there are myths surrounding desecrating their tombs.


Closing Words

King Tutankhamun was a teenager king who became pharaoh at the tender age of 8. He ruled and returned peace to troubled Egypt, however his reign did not last long. After his death, his tomb was dug and it reportedly brought curse on those who did it. However, there is no concrete evidence to prove that the curse exists. It remains a myth.



Apis, an Egyptian bull god, was the personification of the creator god Ptah in Memphis. He is an intermediary between the supreme god and human beings. His mother Isis could engender him in a lightening flash. The bull is depicted as being totally black, except for the small white triangle on its forehead, and having vulture wings. Between the horns are surmounted the dun disc, or in later times the moon, and the uraeus.

The cult of the bull is very ancient and is attested in Egypt since around 3000 BCE. According to the Greek author Herodotus, huge statues of Apis supported the temple of Ptah in Memphis. In a ritual of vitality, the king paced along side the bull to renew his strength. The average lifespan of an Apis bull was fourteen years, after which it was mummified and interred in huge sarcophagi, which was placed in the catacombs at the necropolis at Seqqara. The bull also possesses strong underworld connections.

According to the Hebrew Biblical tradition, Apis was the god, which Aaron modeled the Golden Calf after thinking it would be better to make an image of Jehovah in the well-known form of Egyptian idolatry than to risk the total alienation of the people to false gods. A.G.H.


Jordan, Michael, Encyclopedia of Gods, New York, Facts On File, Inc. 1993, p. 21
Smith’s Bible Dictionary, Philadelphia, A. J. Holman, Co., Revised Ed., p. 1

Wadj Wer


Wadj Wer, also called the mighty green one, was an Egyptian fertility god. Sometimes he was depicted in an androgynous form personifying the Mediterranean Sea or the major lakes of the Nile delta. He is depicted as carrying the ankh and a loaf. The figure often appears pregnant and is associated with the richness of the Nile-delta waters. A.G.H.


Jordan, Michael, Encyclopedia of Gods, New York, Facts On File, Inc. 1993, p. 286



Thoth (also Toth) , scribe of the Egyptian gods, was the chief deity of Khmun, or Hermopolis. He was conceived as either having the head of an ibis or of a bamboo. Thoth is usually depicted as an ibis-headed man with a pen-and-ink holder. He became known as the god of the foundation of the law, mystical wisdom, magic, learning, hieroglyphic writing, arithmetic, and astrology. Thus, he was called “The Lord of the Divine Books” and “Scribe of the Company of Gods.”

The symbolic meaning of the ibis, although this exact meaning has not been discovered, is thought to be associated with healing. Sometimes Thoth is portrayed as a baboon-headed man holding a crescent moon.

According to legend, Thoth, both a healer and magician, restored the Eye of Horus that was torn to bits when the latter fought his uncle Seth (Set) to revenge the death of his father Osiris. The eye of Horus, also known as the udjat eye, became a funerary amulet and magical, all-seeing eye. Thoth was the patron god of the occultists of ancient Egypt, and was petitioned in many of the spells contained in the Egyptian Book of the Dead, such as the opening-of-the-mouth spell to reanimate a corpse, which was recited over a mummy by a high priest.

It was the Greeks who associated their god Hermes with Thoth that the two were almost indistinguishable. Thorth/Hermes became identified with Hermes Trismegistus, the alleged author of the Hermetic books on occult, philosophical, and religious subjects (see Hermetica).

Again, according to legend, Thoth/Hermes gave to his successors the Book of Thoth, or the “Key to Immortality,” which contained the secret processes for the regeneration of humanity and the expansion of consciousness that would enable mankind to behold the gods. There are stories, or theories, concerning the Book of Thoth, some say at first in was kept in a temple in a sealed golden box, and used in the ancient Mysteries. When the practice of these Mysteries declined, it was carried to another unknown land, where it still exists after being safely preserved, and it still leads disciples to the presence of the Immortals. Others hold the Book of Thoth is actually the Tarot deck. A.G.H.


Guiley, Rosemary Ellen, The Encyclopedia of Witches and Witchcraft, New York: Facts On File, 1989, pp. 339-340
Cotterell, Arthur, A Dictionary of World Mythology, New York, G. P. Putman’s Sons, 1980, p. 51



Tefnut, primordial Egyptian goddess of moisture, is one of the first nine deities in the Heliopolitan Theological System. According to the genealogy of the priests of Heliopolis, she was created from the breath or saliva of the creator sun god Atum. She is the sister/consort of Su, and mother of Geb and Nut. Her main cult sanctuary was in Heliopolis. Tefnut, like Su, can be one of several manifestations of the “eye of Re,” and as such she appeared either as a lion or in human form. According to the Pyramid Texts, she created pure water from her vagina. In a different context she took the form of a snake encircling the scepter. A.G.H.


Grimal, Pierre, Larousse World Mythology, Secaucus, New Jersey, Chartwell Books, 1965, p. 32
Jordan, Michael, Encyclopedia of Gods, New York, Facts On File, Inc. 1993, p. 255



Su (or Shu) was the primordial Egyptian air god and the first born of the creator sun-god Atum. He is one of the first nine deities in the Heliopolitan Theological System. He and his sister/consort Tefnut begot the next divine pair, Geb, the earth god, and Nut, the sky goddess. Su is frequently depicted as standing on the supine body holding Nut aloft in his raised arms. He can also be one of the several manifestations of the “eye of Re,” and take the form of a lion, as can his sister. A.G.H.


Grimal, Pierre, Larousse World Mythology, Secaucus, New Jersey, Chartwell Books, 1965, p. 32
Jordan, Michael, Encyclopedia of Gods, New York, Facts On File, Inc. 1993, p. 243



Sia, Egyptian god of perception, is the minor deity depicted at Re’s right hand where he holds up the papyrus of intellect. According to legend he in one of the several deities formed from the drops of blood emitted from Re’s penis. A.G.H.


Jordan, Michael, Encyclopedia of Gods, New York, Facts On File, Inc. 1993, p. 236



Sezmu was a minor Egyptian deity of the wine and oil presses. He was recognized from around 3000 BC to 400 AD. He was depicted as a lion, but more generally in human form. Sezmu had a definite cult following in the fertile Falyun region of the Nile valley, but was probably represented in most sanctuaries, particularly where ritual unguents were made and stored. He was recognized in both benign and malevolent roles. In the latter he was reputed to have squeezed human heads like grapes, but in a beneficent mood he provided aromatic oils and ointments. A.G.H.


Jordan, Michael, Encyclopedia of Gods, New York, Facts On File, Inc. 1993, p. 234



Seth (or Set) was among the first nine deities in the Heliopolitan Theological System, probably originating from Libya, whose followers appeared to have worshipped him under crocodile and hippopotamus fetishes. At first they were centered in Upper Egypt but later spread throughout the country. There seemed to be no rivalry between the cults of Osiris and Isis and his cult, perhaps because the people thought they were all of the same family since Seth was the third child of Nut born on the third intercalary day. He married his twin sister NephthysGeb was his father, and his siblings were Isis and Osiris. As a deity he generally represented hostility and violence, and therefore was typically associated with Semitic war goddesses including Anat and Astarte.

According to legend he violently tore himself from his mother’s womb. Set is depicted in human form as possessing a head of an animal that possibly resembling an aardvark with erected ears and a curving snout. He also is depicted in animal, which bears no resemblance to any living creature, but has a stuffy erected tail. Other animals symbolizing this god include the oryx, pig, boar, crocodile, and the hippopotamus when being a disruptive element in a river.

Seth is mostly recognized for the pat he played in the Osirian legend in which he battled eighty-four years with Osiris’ son Horus. The assembly of gods judged Horus the victor, but during the battle Seth tore Horus left eye out, which became the Eye of Horus. This legend was first recorder in the Pyramid Texts and later popularized and embellished by the Greek writer Plutarch.

In another myth Seth is credited for having saved Re who was about to be swallowed up by Apophis, the perennially hostile serpent of the underworld. The Book of the Dead accredits Seth as being the “lord of the northern sky” who controls the storm, clouds, and thunder.

Politically Seth gain supremacy during the Hyksos occupation of the delta, because these Semitic invaders adopted him as their god, but unlike the pharaohs, they regarded him as the only god and attempted to impose his cult on the rest of Egypt, which retained its independence. The Hyksos, hekaukhaust, “the rulers of foreign lands,” found Seth similar to their own Baals. When Pharaoh Amosis reunited Egypt after the expulsion of the Hyksos, about 1570 BC, the other Egyptian gods were restored. However, an indirect legacy of Seth’s elevation perhaps was attempted Amenophis IV to replace all the gods with Aton, the solar disc. A.G.H.


Cotterell, Arthur, A Dictionary of World Mythology, New York, G. P. Putman’s Sons, 1980, p. 46
Grimal, Pierre, Larousse World Mythology, Secaucus, New Jersey, Chartwell Books, 1965, pp. 63-67
Jordan, Michael, Encyclopedia of Gods, New York, Facts On File, Inc. 1993, p. 233



Seshat, a very ancient goddess who was believed to be the sister and more commonly the wife of Thoth, was the deity of writing and measurement until such functions were ascribed to her husband. She was called the “Lady of Books,” or celestial librarian, and was the patroness also of arithmetic, architecture and records, although she shared these functions with Thoth. Seshat was essentially a royal deity belonging to the pharaohs alone. Thus when temples, royal edifices, were being established Seshat and the pharaoh were shown together stretching the cord to measure out their dimensions. As recorder, she wrote down the name of the king on the leaves on the Tree of Life, near which she dwelt, thus giving him immortality; and she marked the duration of the king’s earthly life on the notched palm branch that she carried, having calculated the length of his days. In this capacity she seemed to have associations with Anubis.

The deity was generally depicted as a woman wearing a flower or star emblem on her head, together with the uraeus of her royal connections. Seshat was dressed in a leopard skin, and held a pen and a scribe’s ink palette. A.G.H.


Ions, Veronuca, Egyptian Mythology, Feltham, Middlesex, Hamlyn Publishing Group, Ltd., 1968. p. 87