Inti

 


Inti, the Sun, (pre-Columbian, South America), is the ancestral god of the Inca dynasty, one of the demons deserving the title of god for embodying a natural element or phenomena. He has rank of pride or first place. His consort is the moon-goddess Mama-Kilya. He is depicted as a trinity in the sanctuaries of Cuzco, possibly in deference to the Christian Trinity. The temple of the Sun is said to housed golden images of all the sky gods in the pantheon, more or less on equal terms, since the sun is regarded as one of many great celestial powers.Inti may also have been depicted as a face on a gold disc. The so-called “fields of the sun” supported the Inca priesthood. The three sun deities are Apo-Inti (lord sun), Cori-Inti (son sun), and Inti-Wawqi (sun mother). The sun god(s) is perceived as progenitor of the Inca rulers at Cuzco through two children–a son Manco Capac and his sister/consort Mama Ocllo Huaco. The Quechua Indians of the central Andes called the same deity Inti Huayna Capac and perceive him part of a trinity with the Christian god and Christ. A.G.H.


Source:s

Grimal, Pierre, Larousse World Mythology, Secaucus, New Jersey, Chartwell Books, 1965. p. 482
Jordan, Michael, Encyclopedia of Gods, New York, Facts On File, Inc. 1993. p. 116-117

Zapana and Cari


Zapana and Cari were two pre-Inca leaders among the Indians of the Collao who conquered many forests, pucaras, of the Indians. Zapana, a great chief, helped stabilize the Indians of the Collao after the early pre-Inca period by bringing many under his command.

One of these leaders went onto the larger island of Lake Titicaca where he found a race of white people with beards and fought them until he killed all of them. Afterwards he and his subjects battled the Canas and the Canchas. After these lords performed notable exploits they turned against each other. They sought the support of the Inca Viracocha, then reigning at Cuczo (Peru), and he made an alliance with Cari at Chucuito and displayed such adroitness that he made himself master over the many peoples of the Collao without fighting. A.G.H.


Sources:

Lake Titicaca. <http://www.crystalinks.com/laketiticaca.html>.
Osborne, Harold. South American Mythology. “Library of the World’s Myths and Legends.” New York. Peter Bedrick Books. 1968, 1985. pp. 68-69

Viracocha


There are further stories about a second man similar in appearance to Ticci Viracocha but his name is not given. According to the peoples’ forbears wherever he passed he healed and restored sight to the blind by words alone. But even after working such miracles in one village, Cacha, the people rose up and turned against him intending to stone him. Then he knelt and raised his hands in prayer toward the sky. The people saw fire then appear in the sky as if to consume them. Fearfully they approached the man whom they sought to stone and besought his forgiveness because they regarded the fire as their punishment. Then they witnessed the fire being extinguished at his command. After this he went to the coast, holding his mantle went amidst the wave to be seen no more. The people named this man Viracocha, which means “foam of the sea.” A.G.H.


Source:

Osborne, Harold. South American Mythology. “Library of the World’s Myths and Legends.” New York. Peter Bedrick Books. 1968, 1985. p. 70

Tupan

 


Tupan is the thunder god among the Guarani Indians of Paraguay and Brazil. They envision him as a human being seated on a trough, noisily crossing the sky. He is associated with the Christian God. Even though Christianized, several Guiana and Amazonian tribes attribute thunder to fantastic birds beating their wings during storms, also resulting in the thunder-bird mythologies of North America. (This same concept is found in African mythology, see Concept of lightening.) Within the area praying to Mother Earth for fertility of their crops and flocks remains the main Pagan worship among the Inca peasants. Although they have little idea of her personality, they happily associate her with the Virgin Mary (see Mama Quca). A.G.H.


Source:

Grimal, Pierre, Larousse World Mythology, Secaucus, New Jersey, Chartwell Books, 1965. p. 483

Ticci Viracocha

 


Ticci Viracocha, is said to be the Creator of all things by both the Indians of the Collao and the highland people of South America. Most believe his chief abode is in heaven. But others whom they say are deceived by the Devil and believe in other gods as the heathens did.

Following the period without sun a white man of large stature and authoritative demeanor appeared. He possessed great power to transform hills into valleys and great valleys into hills, causing streams to flow from the living stone. When witnessing his power the people called him Maker of all things, created and Prince of all things, Father of the sun. They said these things because he did other things as well like giving being to man and animal; in a word or by hand he acquired benefits for them. Such Indian stories have been told through generations traveling from the ancients.

There are legends of this man whom many called Ticci Viracocha traveling to the north among the people in the highlands and instructing them how to live so not to damage or injure each other but to love and be kind to one another. This man is known by several names such as Tuapaca (Thunupa) and Arunua in the various parts of the province of Collao. Various statures of him were built to honor him. However there are no stories of him returning to any of the villages he visited.

There are further stories about a second man similar in appearance to Ticci Viracocha but his name is not given. According to the peoples’ forbears wherever he passed he healed and restored sight to the blind by words alone. But even after working such miracles in one village, Cacha, the people rose up and turned against him intending to stone him. Then he knelt and raised his hands in prayer toward the sky. The people saw fire then appear in the sky as if to consume them. Fearfully they approached the man whom they sought to stone and besought his forgiveness because they regarded the fire as their punishment. Then they witnessed the fire being extinguished at his command. After this he went to the coast, holding his mantle went amidst the wave to be seen no more. The people named this man Viracocha, which means “foam of the sea.” A.G.H.


Source:

Osborne, Harold. South American Mythology. “Library of the World’s Myths and Legends.” New York. Peter Bedrick Books. 1968, 1985. pp. 68-70

Tiahuanaco

 


Tiahuanaco is the official abode of the Inca Creator, which is filled with wondrous edifices in which are painted many dresses of the people and stone figures of men and women who disobeyed him. From his abode the Creator is said to have created the Sun and Moon and the stars to go the lake of Titicaca which is nearby and to ascend to the sky.

In one sense Tiahuanaco always existed because the Incas believed neither the Creator nor his sons were born of woman. They were unchangeable and eternal. A.G.H.


Sources:

Lake Titicaca. <http://www.crystalinks.com/laketiticaca.html>.
Osborne, Harold. South American Mythology. “Library of the World’s Myths and Legends.” New York. Peter Bedrick Books. 1968, 1985. pp. 55-57.
Tiahuanac. <http://www.thule.org/tiahuanaco.html>.

Thunder

 


Thunder followed Inti as the second deity in the Incan pantheon. He is considered master of the thunderbolt, hail, and rain. He traversed the celestial sky carrying a club and sling, and the noise made when he uses them was heard as the rumbling storm. People thought they saw his outline in the stars of the Great Bear, near a river; the Milky Way, from which he drew water to pour on the earth. A.G.H.


Source:

Grimal, Pierre, Larousse World Mythology, Secaucus, New Jersey, Chartwell Books, 1965. p. 483

Tahuantinsuyu

 


Tahuantinsuyu designated the four parts of the Inca world, i.e., the inhabited world. A.G.H.


Source:

Osborne, Harold. South American Mythology. “Library of the World’s Myths and Legends.” New York. Peter Bedrick Books. 1968, 1985. p. 74

Supay

 


Supay, in the Andes, is the personification of collective and dangerous evil spirits, which in early literature was identified with the Christian devil. Sometimes he is described as a monster having a lion’s body, ram’s horns, tiger’s teeth and hooves, and emits the odor of sulfur. His character seems to developed naturally; fear contributed his attributes. He possesses metamorphic abilities to change into a cat, a pig, or an owl, and can inhabit such natural phenomena as an earthquake, hurricane, or storm. When angry he may roar like a wild boar while at other times he grunts like a pig.

While at other times he assumes human form either of a handsome youth or maiden. He then earns a person’s confidence in order to enter their body to inflict epilepsy or madness. This coincides with Supay’s main objective, to damage human beings.

He also is Lord of mineral wealth being able to change veins of silver to quartz and gold to pyrites. A.G.H.


Source:

Osborne, Harold. South American Mythology. “Library of the World’s Myths and Legends.” New York. Peter Bedrick Books. 1968, 1985. p. 80

South American spirits

 


Many describe the inhabitants of the South American spirit world as reflections of the Indians’ minds. The spirits are generally human in shape. Their essential nature is portrayed by some specific detail in appearance such as a painted face, a physical deformity, or a mania. An example is the toad spirit.

Certain spirits are repugnant and frightening in appearance: they are hairy with prominent, arched eyebrows and are either incapable of articulated movement or else joined together like Siamese twins. Many are skeletons or skulls. Spirits frequently appear as a friend or parent. Some peculiarity, however, always gives them away, no toes for example. Whistling or creaking usually occurs when the spirits approach. Those ignoring these peculiarities leave themselves open to accidents and misfortune forming bases for numerous stories and legends.

Other spirits are benevolent, being kind and helpful. To humans kind to them they render good fortune in hunting and fishing. Others marry ordinary mortals but make touchy and nervous partners. These spirits flee at the slightest in appropriate etiquette or violation of the least taboo; one wonders who observed and reported such spirit behavior, the beliers or nonbelievers in spirits. They seemed to be observations in myths of voyages of men into lands of spirits.

The spirits that could be termed demons were differentiated from the spirits identified as being supernatural and had great cults. Each animal species was under the protection of a demon that the Indians gave such names as “Father of peccaries,” “Father of Caymans,” or “Father of monkeys.” The demon of each group was a giant specimen of the specie that he rules and when wishing to metamorphize into human form.

The “father” or “mother” of each species does not exact harm on a hunter who kills their protected animal for food but the inflict harm on the hunter or fisherman who destroys for pleasure instead of person need. Such belief occurred among the Peruvian Indians when thinking they saw within a group of stars the image of a celestial animal guarding or protecting his earthly counterparts. Such a constellation as Lyra might be one; the liama followed by the spouse and the little one. Shepherds prayed to them that their flocks would prosper. Similarly, a certain number of stars in the constellation Scorpio formed the outline of a feline in the sky which not only figured in mythology, but also played a part in the cult. A.G.H.


Source:

Grimal, Pierre, Larousse World Mythology, Secaucus, New Jersey, Chartwell Books, 1965. pp. 481-482