Roman Gods and Goddesses names list

Roman Gods and Goddesses Names List

The Romans have a vast number of gods and goddesses with each of them responsible for one element or the other. Some of these gods and goddesses also got married to one another. In fact, some of the goddesses became deities by virtue of their weddings to other gods. The Romans and the Greeks have several gods in common. As you will see in the course of this write-up, some of the gods recognized and worshiped in the ancient Roman Empire were also recognized and worshiped in Greece; such gods having recognition in Rome and Greece are called Greco-Roman gods and goddesses. In this write-up, you will learn about some of the very popular gods and goddesses in ancient Rome of roman mythology.

 

Jupiter

Jupiter is one of the most popular roman gods. He is also known as Jove and venerated in the Imperial cult of ancient Rome polytheistic religion. He abode in Rome during his lifetime and his symbols include oak tree, eagle and lightning bolt.  He has several children, some of whom are highlighted below:

  • Mars
  • Invidia
  • Vulcan
  • Bacchus
  • Minerva
  • Venus
  • Hercules
  • Dike
  • Bellona among several others.

His parents were Saturn and Ops. His siblings in the Roman tradition were Vesta, Juno, and Ceres, while his siblings in the Greco-Roman tradition are Neptune and Pluto.  Jupiter is considered to have the same power rating as Zeus.  He is considered as the god of the sky and thunder. Additionally, he is seen as the king of every god in ancient Roman religion. He was the dominant god until Christianity took over.

Some said he originated as a sky god and his symbol, the eagle, is supreme to every other bird of the sky. In ancient time, the eagle was also used as the symbol of the Roman army.

 

Neptune

Neptune lived in the sea, and he is commemorated via some festivals, like Lectiseternium and Neptunalia.  His parents were Saturn and Ops, and his siblings were Jupiter, Vesta, Pluto, Ceres, and Juno.  He is equivalent to the Greek god, Poseidon.

He is considered as the god of the sea and freshwater. His brothers were the ones presiding over the heavenly realms, the underworld, and the earthly world. The name of his wife was Salacia. His depictions in Roman mosaics are influenced by Hellenistic convections, and he is thought first to have an association with freshwater before the sea.  In Rome, he is being worshiped as the god of horses, and he is seen as the patron of horse-racing in which he is referred o as Neptunus Equester.

There is a measure of dispute and confusion in his etymology. His name was derived from Nupus by Varro, the ancient grammarian and Nupus stand for covering. His name also translates to the marriage of Heaven and Earth. He was first recognized in 399 BC in the lectisternium. Since he is considered as the god of fresh water, he is then the god of rivers, lakes, and springs. He was thus labeled because several inscriptions about him showed him in the proximity of those places while he was alive. Furthermore, Neptune is similar in power to Nechtan, the Irish god.

 

Mars

The symbol of Mars is spear and shield, referred to as the spear of Mars. His parents were Jupiter and Juno, while his siblings were Vulcan, Bacchus, Minerva, Diana, Hercules, Bellona and many more.  He is equivalent to Ares, the Greek god.

He was the god of war in ancient Roman myth and religion. He was equally the god of agricultural guardian; war and agriculture were combination characteristics of ancient Rome.  He was second to Jupiter in importance and was considered as the most prominent of the military gods. He was commemorated by the Roman military in ancient times and most of the festivals to commemorate him were held in March and October; October is the beginning of the military campaign and the end of the farming season in ancient Rome.

Furthermore, Mars has some recognition in ancient Greek mythology and religion in which he was identified with Ares; Ares’ myths were reinterpreted in several Roman art and literature. Be that as it may, the dignity and characters of the Roman Mars differ from that of the Greek Mars.

Mars was considered as the child of Jupiter and Juno, as hinted earlier. However, he was considered as the son of Juno alone according to a version of his birth made public by Ovid.

 

Apollo

Apollo was considered as the god of knowledge, light, sun, medicine, plague, archery, oracles, art, poetry and music. He abode in Mount Olympus. He is symbolized by bow and arrow, swan, raven, python, laurel wreath, and Lyre.

His children are Orpheus, Aristaeus, Troilus, and Asclepius. His parents, on the other hand, are Zeus and Leto. Apollo has several siblings, and some of them are highlighted below:

  • Artemis
  • Moirai
  • Aeacus
  • Muses
  • Angelos
  • Litae
  • Aphrodite
  • Horae
  • Ares
  • Graces
  • Athena
  • And so on

The Greek mythology also recognized Apollo, which made him a Greco-Roman god.

Apollo is among the most complex Olympian deities. Additionally, he is the god of poetry, plague, and prophecy. He is a twin, with his twin sister being the chaste huntress called Artemis. He was also the patron of Delphi and an oracular god. He was associated with healing and medicine. Both the Greek and Romans considered him to be the god of light.

His birthplace was Mount Cynthus located on the island of Delos. He was seen as a protector and founder; he was involved in protecting homes and roads. He was also worshiped all across the Roman Empire. His popularity equally extended to Celtic lands, where he was seen as the sun god.

 

Conclusion

You have learned about some of the gods and goddesses of ancient Rome, as well as the roles they played. Many of these gods are still being worshiped these days, but the acts of worship are not as frequent, common or elaborate today. This indicates that such worships are becoming extinct gradually.