“Let them eat cake”
Let them eat cake (“Qu’ils mangent de la brioche” in french) was the phrase pronounced by the sumptuous Queen Marie Antoinette of France when they told her that the people, hungry, asked for bread .
“Let them eat cake” appeared for the first time in 1765, when Marie Antoinette was only nine years old, in the autobiography of the philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau who attributed it to a “great princess”. Rousseau never named the great princess and many historians consider that the anecdote could even be an invention since his autobiography is not very reliable.
Some scholars believe that the origin of the phrase is even older and from very distant lands to France. An ancient Chinese anecdote tells that when the emperor was told that the people were hungry, because there was no rice, he said they would give him meat.
The phrase, used a lot by the revolutionary enemies of the Bourbon monarchy in France, was intended to demonstrate the queen’s apathy towards the people by offering them an expensive food and from the parties in the palace to the poor and hungry crowd. Although many still attribute it to the tragic Marie Antoinette today, it is more than a fact that the queen of Austrian birth never said it. It is only a legend, or not?
“Give me liberty or give me death”
Were the words of the young Patrick Henry, who after much discussion with his assembly colleagues considered that their speech against the oppressor was futile and useless. When the young patriot felt that these men, proposed to take the path of peace and not the struggle for freedom, he said at the meeting of the Convention of 1775: “Peace, peace!” But peace no longer exists. The war has already begun. Our breaths are already on the battlefield! Why do we remain, then, inactive? What do men want? What do you want? Is life so precious, or peace so sweet, to be bought at the price of chains and slavery? I do not know the course that others have to take? But as far as I am concerned: give me liberty or give me death!?.
Words that inspired the beginning of the American Revolution and the libertarian movements of America entire. In a few days began the English repression. The war for independence of the American colonies began by sowing the sacrificial furrow with many patriotic lives.
“I think therefore I am” in latin “Cogito ergo Sum”
It s a phrase of the French philosopher and mathematician René Descartes (1596-1650), which summarizes his intellectual and philosophical process that states that the only way to find the truth is through reason.
Descartes tried to establish an absolutely evident truth by means of a deductive system sustaining that the cogito or thought, which are all the conscious acts of the spirit, always implies doubt.
Doubting everything, according to Descartes, is only a methodological procedure to find an undoubted truth, therefore it is a methodical doubt and not a definitive mental posture.
Thanks to the criterion of doubt begins to doubt everything but could not escape the recurrent doubt that “is hesitating”, therefore the only question that can not be removed is the doubt itself.
Descartes then comes to the conclusion that if it is not possible to eliminate the doubt, at least he can not doubt that he thinks he is doubting. Therefore “I think” would lead to two unique conclusions: first I think and then I exist.
The evidence of Descartes on the indubitability of which I doubt because I think and because I am, would result in the famous phrase “I think, therefore I exist” coined in his book “Speech of the Method” written in the year 1637 in Leiden, Holland.
René Descartes was convinced that the common opinion and experience of humanity were not reliable to seek the truth, so he decided to devise a new system that could get rid of them.
Descartes then created a method that involved a mathematical instrument of pure deduction that derives from an absolute reason projecting the idea of a mechanistic universe, everything functions as a mechanism.
René Descartes went even further with his philosophical inquiries of reason stating that, although we all have a mind and a body, the only certainty is the existence of the mind (thought, reason) because you can not be sure or that our body exists.