When Was the Great Wall of China Built

 

In this article you will find the answer to the following questions, details and history about the great wall of China:

  • How long is
  • How tall is
  • When was Built
  • Why Was Built
  • How old is

 

China Great Wall

 

When was Built

As we will see in detail it built started on 215 BC until almost 206 BC.

 

How old Is

Is is more than 2.300 years old.

 

Why Was Built

China, year 215 a. C. The country is under the yoke of its first emperor, Qin Shi Huangdi. His last great order: build a huge defensive line against the nomads of the northern steppes, which threaten with their incursions the stability of the Empire. In the place designated for this great wall, a man charged with a huge block of stone on his back falls to the floor exhausted. An officer approaches and hits him harshly ordering him to get up. The man does not move. He has died a victim of exhaustion. Now you have to bury it. However, in this slave society, even the dead have their utility. The body of the unfortunate will serve as another element of the wall, will be walled inside. This is the price required for the construction of the Great Wall.

Although not all historians agree, Qin Shi Huangdi is credited with having ordered the construction of the first Great Wall. Because, although it is generally spoken of the Great Wall, in reality there was not only one, but several. There were several construction periods over a millennium and a half, and the layout of those walls was altered depending on the needs.

According to tradition, after unifying his empire in 221 a. C., the first emperor of China ordered one of his generals, Meng Tian, ​​to build a large fortification along its northern border. However, the creation of walls to protect their new empire was not in itself a novelty. In fact, Qin Shi Huangdi was inspired by a policy practiced in the past. The existence of defensive lines goes back several centuries before his reign, especially to the previous period, that of the Warring States.

At that time the Chinese territory was divided into different states, allies or facing each other according to the circumstances. These kingdoms erected walls to defend themselves against their enemies, but, in addition, those located in the northern part built defenses to protect themselves from the attacks of the nomadic peoples of the northern steppes.

It was precisely in this last type of defenses that the first emperor was set to raise his own defensive line before the attacks of the nomads. He ordered to build new walls, and in other cases to take advantage of the existing ones and to unite them in such a way that a wide protective knot was formed. According to the legend, said wall would measure ten thousand li. The li is a unit that is equivalent to approximately half a kilometer. That is, the Great Wall would reach a total length of 5,000 kilometers.

And this is where the tradition that associates the sovereign Qin with the Great Wall arises, but also with its cruelty, a fame that has been handed down from generation to generation in China and that has made him a feared and hated. His own tomb, composed of thousands of terracotta warriors, is another example of the power attained by the first emperor. In the case of the Great Wall, it is said that it employed a million people, many of whom gave up their lives in the endeavor. Among those who worked in its construction were soldiers from peasants forced to abandon their crops and move north to satisfy the wishes of the Sovereign. In addition, there were those condemned by the State. Under Qin Shi Huangdi, China became a police state where any violation of the law was punishable by harsh punishments. It was not strange that there was a lot of labor thanks to the sentences of forced labor.

The aim was to put an end to the nomadic attacks, which had become very difficult to avoid due to the extreme mobility of the horsemen of the steppes.
The impulse of such a long barrier was aimed at ending the nomadic attacks, which had become very difficult to avoid until then due to the extreme mobility of the horsemen of the steppes. Some historians have suggested that the consequences of the construction of the Great Wall were felt in places as distant as the West. Thus, nomadic people who could not cross it chose to go west. One of them would be that of the Xiongnu, whose descendants, among whom are the Huns of Attila, came to Europe and contributed to the fall of the Roman Empire.

Be that as it may, after the overthrow of the Qin in 206 a. C., later dynasties would continue their work repairing or extending the Great Wall and even altering the original circuit. However, it will not be until a millennium and a half later when this imposing defensive line takes on special relevance again.

 

If Qin Shi Huangdi is assigned the idea of ​​the Great Wall, the Ming were the ones who gave him the impressive dimensions that can currently be seen when visiting him. Until the arrival of this dynasty, which remained in power from the fourteenth to the seventeenth century, references to the Great Wall had been scarce in Chinese written works. It was cited by great historians such as Sima Qian and Ban Gu, albeit superficially. This would indicate that until then a defensive line had been treated without excessive importance and whose utility had decreased with the passage of time.

Under the Ming, however, the Great Wall regained the weight lost during the previous centuries. It was restored following the old foundations and was preserved in good condition throughout its thousands and thousands of kilometers. In fact, the wall of the Ming even exceeds the dimensions established in the times of the first emperor. It extends from Shanghaiguan, on the edge of the Gulf of Bohai, on the east coast of the country, to Jiayuguan, an impressive fort that puts an end to the historic defense, already in the desert areas of Gansu province.

 

How long is

Total length is 21.196 km

In total, it covers 6,000 kilometers of Chinese territory. It is not strange that his original name in Chinese is changcheng, the “long wall”. Because of its serpentine path, its image has been associated with that of a huge dragon, the symbol of the imperial monarchy in China.
The new dynasty opted for a more resistant defensive system, so that its dimensions were also enlarged.

 

How tall is

The average height is 6-7 meters (20-23 feet).

In the central and eastern part, which is the most important and a beautiful example of Ming architecture, the height of the walls reaches almost 10 meters. Every 800 meters or so there are guard towers, and at various points along the Great Wall there are fortifications, inhabited by those military units that were in charge of preventing enemy attacks and curbing any attempt to invade Chinese territory.

 

Defense and politics

The construction of a wall protecting the northern frontier had first and foremost a defensive function. Its extension to the west by the Ming has a logical explanation. Qin Shi Huangdi dominated a smaller empire than the Ming, who inherited the territories conquered by previous dynasties. Now the danger came not only from the north, but also from the interior of Asia, from the regions located in the central zone of the continent.
The Ming carried out military campaigns beyond their borders to prevent the offensive of neighboring peoples and extend the borders of the Empire.
The construction of the wall was accompanied by measures such as surprise attacks on the northern towns. Like some previous dynasties, the Ming carried out military campaigns beyond their borders to prevent the offensive of neighboring peoples and extend the borders of the Empire. This was especially important in the north, from where most of the partial or total invasions of the Chinese Empire came in the centuries before the Ming. The dynasty was very aware of this fact. The main enemies were the Mongols, who had dominated the throne of the country for almost a century.
But there were also political reasons for the construction of the wall. During the reign of the third Ming emperor, Yongle, in the early fifteenth century, the change of capital of the Empire of Nanjing (“the capital of the south”) to Beijing (or Beijing, the “capital of the north”) took place. Among the reasons for this transfer was to control the northern border more closely, but this also implied a new concern: the closeness with the nomads involved the need to strengthen the defenses of Beijing and the Forbidden City, the residence of the Emperor, who was beginning to erect.
The period of greatest construction was, however, the time of Wanli, halfway between the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The Ming dynasty goes into decline from the second half of the sixteenth century. Imperial expenditures are on the rise, but they are mostly events abroad, with the increasingly fierce offensives of the Mongols and other nomadic peoples such as the Manchus, which impel the emperor to substantially reinforce the defensive line of the north. Military spending skyrocketed and the consequences were significant, because the cost left China in a delicate economic situation.

 

The offensive of the Mongols and other nomadic peoples such as the Manchus, urged the emperor to substantially strengthen the defensive line of the north.
In fact, it was not the nomads who toppled the Ming, but an internal revolt. In the midst of the chaos, the Manchus, responding to the call of some Ming officers, crossed without problems the Great Wall and arrived in Beijing, where they crushed the rebellion. However, once in China, the Manchus did not retreat, but moved to occupy the imperial throne. The last Chinese dynasty was born, that of the Qing. The Great Wall had stopped making sense. In a curious outcome of fate, the Ming, those who had contributed most to making the Great Wall the most important defense in China, became the last Chinese dynasty.

Center of the world

Although its function was mainly military, the Great Wall was not only a defensive line, but also a sample of the Chinese attitude toward the outside world. For the Chinese, it marked the real frontier between civilization (represented by themselves) and the “barbarians”, that is, those peoples (Huns, Turks, Mongols …) that threatened the stability of the Central Empire. This was the name given to China, whose rulers and inhabitants considered themselves the center of the world, the only civilized world.
The Great Wall also served to fix the differences between two types of society: the one formed by a sedentary people that practiced agriculture and the nomad, which was mainly dedicated to livestock.
Only for all these reasons is it explained that this magnificent construction has survived so long. Today, the Great Wall lacks the military utility of the past and is no longer the target of the “barbarians”, but of tourism, both foreign and domestic. The Chinese, in any case, show their pride in the ability of their ancestors to lift such a magnum opus, often forgetting the pain it caused in them.

Gobekli Tepe

oldest temple in the world in turkey


 

Introduction

Six miles from Urfa, an ancient city in southeastern Turkey is an archaeological site atop of mountain ridge known as Gobekli Tepe. Predating Stonehenge by some 6000 years, it has often mystified the researchers as to its origin. Urfa, also known as the ‘City of Prophets’  has a rich religious history, though just how far this religion went remained unclear until the discovery of Gobekli Tepe. What makes this place unique is the date it was built which is roughly twelve thousand years ago, around 10,000 B.C.

 

oldest turkey temple

 

Structure

It consists of dozens of massive stone pillars arranged in rings, one standing up against the next. Each ring has a similar layout i.e. there are two large T shaped stone pillars surrounded by smaller stones facing inward. The tallest pillar is approximately 5 m tall and weighs about 7 to 10 tons. Some of the pillars are blank while others are elaborately carved with sketches of some wild animal as well as some abstract symbols. Most common are foxes, vultures, lions, wild ducks and boars. The tell has a height of 15 m and is about 300 m in diameter. This site is about 760 m above sea level.

 

Discovery

It is also known as Potbelly Hill because of its gently rounded top that rises 15 m above the surrounding area. This site first came into the notice of anthropologists of Istanbul University and University of Chicago in 1963. They visited the region as part of survey, saw some broken slabs of limestone and assumed it was nothing more than a part of some ancient cemetery. In 1995, this site came into the notice of Klaus Schmidt of German Archaeological Institute when he was doing his own survey of the region. After going through the report of Chicago’s researchers, he concluded that the site was more than just a part of gravesite.

He began excavating the site in collaboration with the Urfa Museum. Huge T shaped pillars, which were previously considered to be just rocks, were soon discovered.

 

History

It has been classified as Pre Pottery Neolithic Period (9600 – 7300 B.C.). Schmidt and his team found no evidence of settlement at Gobekli Tepe. There is archaeological proof that the site was not used for domestic purposes as there were no cooking hearths, trash pits or houses found. The site was predominantly used for ritual or religious reasons. Further research showed that Gobekli Tepe consists of not one but many Stone Age temples. Many bone fragments of wild animals were found which shows that the inhabitants of Gobekli Tepe were animal hunters rather than farmers who kept domesticated animals.

 

Interpretation

The question which has mystified the researchers is that why was such an elaborate monument constructed. Schmidt found no evidence that people actually lived on this ancient hill. The large numbers of animal bones suggest that animal sacrifice took place here. This was basically a place of worship for the people and a pilgrimage destination which attracted worshippers from lands far away.  The findings here are so extensive that archaeologists believe that even after digging for 50 years, they would only have touched the surface.

 


Sources: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/01/150120-gobekli-tepe-oldest-monument-turkey-archaeology/

Church of the holy sepulchre facts

 


 

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem is the holiest place in the world for all currents of Christianity, except Protestants. There, according to the belief, is the Golgotha ??or Mount of Calvary, the place where Jesus of Nazareth died crucified. Within a few meters, inside the same enclosure, there is also the tomb where Jesus was buried and resurrected. The Catholic tradition places within the Church the last five of the fourteen stations of the Via Dolorosa. Together with the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, it is the oldest church in the world still standing, about 1700 years old. Like Jerusalem itself, it has endured countless wars, fires and earthquakes, and was destroyed and rebuilt several times.

 

Church of the holy sepulchre

 

History

 

Year 135. The Emperor Hadrian suffocates the Rebellion of Bar Kojba, changes the name of Jerusalem by Aelia Capitolina and transforms it into a pagan city. Where before was the Temple of Jerusalem builds a temple dedicated to Jupiter. Where today stands the Church of the Holy Sepulcher builds a temple to the goddess Venus, perhaps to erase the traces of a place of earlier Christian worship.

326. The Empress Helena, mother of Emperor Constantine, travels to the Holy Land and orders to build four churches, among them the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem and the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem, originally called Church of the Anastasis (resurrection in Greek) . According to legend, where today is the Chapel of St. Helena, in the crypt of the present church, Helena finds three crosses: that of Jesus and those of the good thief and evil thief who had been crucified at his side. In order to distinguish which of the three was that of Jesus, bring a sick person who touches each of the crosses until, when he rests his hands on The True Cross miraculously heals himself.
614. The Sassanid Persians invade the Holy Land, kill thousands of clerics, destroy dozens of monasteries and churches, the Church of the Holy Sepulcher is damaged and the True Cross is taken to Persia as booty. Fourteen years later, the Byzantine emperor Heraclius defeats the Persians, recovers the cross and restores the Church.

1009. The caliph of the Fatimid dynasty in Egypt, Al-Hakim bi Amr Allah, destroys the Church.

1048. The Byzantine emperor Monomachus, after having reached an agreement with the Fatimis, rebuilds the church. But the Church no longer returns to colossal size nor regain the splendor it held in the days of Constantine and Helen.

1099. The Crusaders, commanded by Godfrey of Bouillon, conquer Jerusalem. Shortly after, works of widening and reconstruction of the Holy Sepulcher begin.

1149. At the turn of the fiftieth anniversary of the cross-conquest, Queen Melisenda reinvigorates the Church.

1187. The Crusaders bring the True Cross to the battlefield to infuse themselves with courage, imitating the Israelites who were carrying the Ark of the Covenant when they fought against the Philistines. Saladin defeats the Crusaders, the True Cross is lost and the first Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem collapses. The Christian presence in the Holy Land decreases and also the flow of Christian pilgrims who arrive at the Holy Sepulcher for the next eight centuries.

1852. There are centuries of disputes between different Christian communities for the possession and administration of the church, which was varied according to the political and economic expediency of the ruler of the day. Until the Ottoman sultan decrees the Status Quo in the middle of the nineteenth century. Since then, the division of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher prevails among six communities: Greek Orthodox, Catholic, Armenian, Syrian, Coptic and Ethiopian. The Status Quo establishes which section corresponds to each community, what liturgical rights each has, in what parts and on what dates. The division has remained almost intact even though Jerusalem has changed hands several times since. The Status Quo has been maintained under the Ottoman Empire, the British Mandate, the Kingdom of Jordan and the State of Israel.


Manitou Cliff Dwelings


The Manitou Cliff Dwellings was initially located in Colorado close to Mesa Verde National Park but was moved to this location by the new private owner to protect them from looters and vandals. They were dismantled and packaged, piece by piece, and moved to this new location with oxen, horses and rails. They are carefully rearranged to maintain its initial form. The plan drawn initially was used to put the entire piece together one after the other. It took almost three years to put all of these pieces together to form the dwellings and was made available for the visitors and tourist in 1907. The structure was put together using a concrete mortar of the adobe mud and the type of clay Anasazi in Indians use.

The various sandstones are red and are under another form of sandstone that has been there before. Even though the relocation is been done in same location, the structure rebuilt is still a long way different from that in the original location. These happen to be the best description of the culture of Anasazi the people of Indian.

 

The scientist said that the pueblos stone and cliff dwellings were abandoned may be due to the enemies that force them out or starvation that may be due to draught. The Anasazi Indians, with the other name the Ancient Ones, are first nomads and sometimes around 750 AD, dwelled in a larger community and raise a multi story building. We assumed they move this stones on a rock ledge from the bottom of the cliffs for the refuge from the enemies.

 

The new site is a bit smaller than what is expected which allow tourist to navigate through the various structures. This comes in form of self guided tour that has informational descriptions and signs showing where you are moving through various structures you are looking at and how they have been from the ancient times, which is about 700 years ago. They encourage the various visitors that come to this location to tough the various structures to have the memory, especially for the little children’s. The various Indian hymn chants are boldly ascribe at the surface of the structures. The encouraged to touch policy trill the little children a lot. This offers them the opportunity to look through the nooks and crannies of the structures and climb the various ladders inside the building.

 

It was so amazing to know that this was the same structure that has been in place for long years ago. This provides great insight to the ancient culture and the various characters of people that inhabited the place years ago. It was so amazing to know how resourceful this Anasazi Indian has been in the past.

 

They have four rooms, four family houses which make the community. The large rectangles in the structures represent the doors, while the small holes represent the windows. And they do use  The Anasazi were believed to be around 4 feet tall which really explain why their door is like that.

 

We have step built in the structures to link the store building. And niches are on the building which was assumed to hold their goods and various sacred things.

 

The stone tower was assumed to serve various ceremonial purposes those days. We have timbers inserted into the building to climb the top of the tower. And down stairs is the chief speaker structure which happens to have a larger door and windows than the remaining part of the other structures. Instead of using an ordinary stone to cover the door, sandstone was used instead. And timbers are always used to support the upper structures.

But to preserve this structure in the modern times, only three people are allowed in that place at a time. The pool and the benches arranged in such a way and we have chicken rooster o them which signify they the people abandoned their homes.

 

The biggest building in the structure is the community communal which is three storey building with something around ninny families. The large part of the building is made of timbesr like every storey buildings. A museum and a shop were built nearby in a three-story Pueblo-style structure. This is also the residence of many American for many years until 1984. The shop has a lot of tourist kits. The Anasazi museum has weapons, pottery, southwestern artifacts, which gives a better insight of how this American Indian lived.

 

Though the building might not be so big as you will want it , but a lot of visitors still enjoy their visit Manitou Cliff Dwellings which gives us a better understanding of how Anasazi Indians lived in the ancient times.

 

Your visit to this location will help you picture how the ancient location will look like. If stay in or around Colorado Springs vicinity, it will be a good idea to visit this ancient location.

 


 

 

Kreischer Mansion History

 


Kreischer Mansion is a historic home that is located at Charleston, Staten Island, New York. It was built by a German immigrant called Balthasar Kreischer in 1885 in a Late Victorian style. The mansion was located in a town that was called Kreischerville in the past. He arrived in New York after a fire took 65% of the city and he made a fortune by fabricating fire bricks for fireproof construction that in the time had a great demand. Although he begun living in the Lower East Side, later he moved in Staten Island on the western shore. The house is framed with wood, large and massed asymmetrically. It has also gables, decorative railings, brackets, corner tower, brackets, tall chimneys and jigsaw bargeboards. Balthasar Kreischer built the house for his sons, but those who were fighting for the house were Edward Kreischer and Charles Kreischer. The house belonged to Edward. It was also added in the Register of Historic Places in 1982.

 

Rumors about the house and the problems in Kreischer family

There are rumors that an infidelity, murder and financial management between the family: Edward, his brother, his wife and their children, and a cook who perished in a fire that happened mysteriously and destroyed the home completely.

The Kreischer Mansion was a restaurant until 1996 by the mafia and in 1998 was bought by Isaac Yomtovian with an intention to restore it and eventually sell it.

Beginnings of the building and the legends that still haunt the house

Kreischer had 7 children, but before his dead he built two mansions and gave them to his sons Edward and Charles. The mansion of Charles burned, but the one from Edward is still present. In front of the house there is a locked gate.

The mansion in the history had the reputation of a house of ghosts and some spooky situations that happened. By one legend you can hear a voice of a woman wailing, that by the saying is the voice of Edward’s wife. She killed her husband with a bullet in his head.

By another legend the house is cursed because the German cook from the family was killed in the kitchen and his soul still haunts every new owner that buys this house.

In the yard there was a grave. In the house there was a leather wallpaper, few pairs of balconies, chandeliers in every room, a wonderful view down the wetlands on the north and the west. The place served as a place for filming movies and TV shows.

 

Murders

There was a grisly murder in the house by the previous caretaker, a real one. After that another murder happened in 2005 where the caretaker of the empty mansion was being paid thousands of dollars by the mafia boss. After that there is another murder where the next caretaker Young stabbed his 3 associates with a knife, grabbed McKelvey, strangled him and took him at the grave in the yard. After the murder, the murderer went in a café to celebrate then he went to Home Depot, took gloves, power saws and tarps, cut the body into pieces and put them in the furnace.

 

Great Depression

During the Great Depression one of the twin mansions was destroyed, and the other one was saved despite the poor fortune of the family. The Gothic house soon became a target for creepy stories, superstitions, hearing strange noise, lights and much more. Even though the house was known by this, it was never truly abandoned.

 

Restoring the mansion

A developer from Ohio, Isaac Yomtovian bought the mansion in 1999 for 1.4 million dollars having the vision of creating again Kreischerville- the old place as it was. He restored the mansion by himself, but then he quit the project of creating Kreischerville again and gave the mansion on the market again in 2012. The mansion had only one potential buyer, but Yomtovian rejected the offer.

 

For Sale

Despite all these rumors and superstitions the Kreischer Mansion is again back on the market today, but the stories about the ghosts and creepy voices. With a little more luck it may be sold again. The price for the mansion is listed as 9.5 million dollars with included property.

The listing of the property describes the overall property the mansion has. It has 4,500 square feet of living space, three bathrooms, seven bedrooms, a dining room, and basement. When the mansion was on the market 4 years ago, it was listed for 11.5 million dollars and was approved previously for 120 to 130 condos.

The mansion is still not sold nowadays, and by the latest information in 2015 was opened as a host house for the Halloween event.

Update: Mansion was sold in 2017, nowadays it can’t be accessed.

See also Winchester Mystery House article.


Winchester Mistery House

Winchester Mansion

Located in San Jose, California  is the one-time residence of the William Wirt Winchester’s widow, Sarah Winchester. This Queen Anne Style Victorian villa is known as the Winchester Mystery House and is situated at 525 South Winchester Blvd. Winchester Mystery House is a building without a known master plan. Also, it is presently a tourist attraction and is considered a historic place in the United States.

 

 

History

With a famous history that dates back to 1984, the Winchester Mystery House is an extraordinary mansion that was built in the space of about 36 years. This building started with the purchase of an eight-room farmhouse. As at the time it was built, the Winchester Mystery House was worth $5.5 million and never got completed. The construction continued until the passing away of Sarah Winchester in 1922.

The Winchester mansion is much more than the regular estate. It had some exceptional features that were not popular at the time that it was built and even in modern times. Therefore, making it a wonder to behold. Some of these features include multiple elevators, 160 rooms, 40 bedrooms, 10,000 windows.

There were lots of stories associated with the Winchester castle. However, the most common story was that Sarah Winchester was being haunted by ghosts of those killed by Winchester rifles. After the death of her husband, legend has it that Sarah Winchester was told to move to the west and keep building if she was going to prevent spirits from attacking her. It was believed that the mansion was designed in the form of a maze to get ghosts that would come to kill her confused. There were also rumors that she would die as soon as this mansion got completed.

There were rumors that Sarah Winchester passed the night in a different room throughout the time that she lived in Winchester Mystery house and also moved through the intricate paths to avoid being harassed by the ghosts that she believed were after her.

In 1906, there was a massive earthquake which hugely affected the top three floors of the mansion and also slightly modified the other four levels of the seven-story mansion. As a result of this incident, Sarah demanded that the uncompleted front part of the manor be secured.

 

Mysteries 

Shortly after the death of William Winchester, Sarah Winchester’s husband, her friends advised her to seek the help of a medium. She adhered to this and sought the help of Adam Coombs, a Boston based spiritualist. With the help of the spiritualist, Sarah Winchester was able to get in touch with her late husband. He, in turn, advised her to build a never-ending mansion that would always keep growing to accommodate the growing number of those killed by the Winchester Rifle and so that she could become immortal.

Sarah, therefore, moved to the west and began building immediately. She had the finances, as she had inherited her husband’s shares and vast amounts from his business.

 

Conclusion

The Winchester Mystery House remains a legend until today, and many believe it is hunted. At the moment, this house is not occupied. It is now a tourist attraction.

 

See also Kreischer Mansion