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Chaldea was originally a small territory in southern Babylonia at the head of the Persian Gulf. But later after the Neo-Babylonian empire of Nebuchadnezzar II (605-532 BCE) the term practically encompassed all the territory north of Hit southward to the Gulf. Some think Chaldea, original small territory, was the origin of the Chaldeans.
Unger, Merrill F. Unger's Bible Dictionary. 3rd. ed. Chicago. Moody Press. 1985. p. 187