Back to Home Page or Contents Page or Past and present beliefs or Index
A definition of Feng Shui is a natural science which studies the flow of energy between nature and man. Feng Shui is mainly thought as Chinese and its closet concept in Western culture is the science of ecology, but, whereas, ecology studies plants and animals, Feng Shui is concerned with all matter including buildings and people.
Presently many study Feng Shui to improve their lives. Feng Shui is the study of the energy flow between nature and people, and vice versa. This natural energy flow affects how people grow, evolve and feel. Such a flow is a state of change which can affect people positively, and sometimes negatively. The understanding of this process renders the individual the benefits of increasing the positive effects while eliminating the negative. This results in the individual becoming less stressful and able to use the energy to promote better things within his or her life. This is the real definition of "going with the flow" or harmony and balance, the essence of true Feng Shui.
Kan Yu is the proper term of Feng Shui. Kan means the theory of cosmology
and Yu means the theory of terrestral (Shen, Xu). To be precise, they
refer to the theory of time and location in the Chinese history. In
ancient time, atlas was called "Yu Tu ", picture of Yu. Yu here also means
the earth. Another explanation of these two words (Jun-Sheng, Shu) is Kan
means high land
and Yu m ans depression. The basic principle of Kan Yu is to identify the loci of Qi flow on and under the ground and also compute the strength of Qi in term of time. Qi is an abstract term to represent an intangible current at which vegetation growth well, the macro or micro-climate is stable and human being live happily. The theory claim that no matter life or death located at a point of concentrated Qi will receive the good influence of Qi. Di Li is another ancient term to describe Kan Yu. In fact, nowadays the Chinese translation of geography in academics is called Di Li. In Yi Jing, The Classic of Change, say "looking up to have the vision of astrology, looking down to understand Di Li". However, in ancient time Di Li is not equal to modern geography. A westerner, Chatley (Ren- Kui. Li), tried to define Di Li as " an art to find the best location of life and death in order to harmonize with the cosmic breath". However, this term is mot recommended to represent Kan Yu because of missing in astrological and timing elements in Kan Yu theory.
Feng Shui is always misunderstood in relation to, the literal translation
of Feng Shui, Wind and Water. This misleading explanation unfortunately
comes from not only the non-Chinese translator but also some so called
Feng Shui masters or practitioner. This term is believed coming from the
Burial Classic (recognized Pu, Guo as the writer), the most famous book
usually quoted in Chinese Feng Shui books to explain the source of this
term. The book writes " The Classic said Qi will be destroyed by wind and
stop by water. Ancestors converge it without dispersion. Although it flows
but stops it. Therefore, it is called Wind-water". The original statement
was believed coming from another classic called "Qing Nang Jing". This
book explains the formation of the universe. In its last chapter, we can
find "Topography has four kinds, Qi comes from eight directions, external
Qi is in shape, internal Qi grow with limit. Qi will be destroyed by wind
and stopped by water. Therefore it is in form of five signs. Then we use
eight triagrams and follow sexagenary cycle." It is very clear that the
fundamental principle of Kan Yu is looking for the
concentration of Qi but not superficially on the wind and water.
Another misunderstanding is the term geomancy which is believed to be a modified term of necromancy in explaining the magic to communicate with ground in order to know the future. Some English dictionary even use this term to be equal to water-divining where by holding a Y-shape wooden rod one can locate underground water. However, it is different from Kan Yu theory in term of the Qi theory and many other complicated theories behind.
The location theory can be recalled in long time ago. In Huangti (2697-2597 BC), the king consulted Qing Wu master who understood the phenomena of the earth during redistricting of his provinces.
In Zhou Dynasty (About 1100-221 BC), Guo Pu is a famous geographer. It was said that without proof he wrote the Burial Classic. He learnt from Guo Gong who gave him nine volumes of Kan Yu books (Qing Nang Zhong Shu) describing Five Agency theory, astrology and prediction by divining of straw and burnt bone. Written in the same period, the Epic described the first King of Zhou observed the Yin-yang in the proposed site for the new capital.
Around Qin -3 Dynasty (221-207 BC) based on Yin Yang theory, the
aforesaid observation technique was developed into Yin Yang school and
Shape school. The former was concentrated to Yin Yang theory in location
theory and latter was mainly concern the topography. For example, when the
king Han Wu (Ri Zhe Lie Chuan) consulted the solution of a location
problem there were advice coming from Kan Yu master, Yin Yang master and
Shape master. This show that there was not only one school to study
location problem at that time and the Kan Yu
theory was not yet combined with Yin Yang theory and shape theory as today.
Therefore, it is believed that the Kan Yu matured around Han Dynasty (206 BC -AD 24). During so many years of development and dispersion, the same theory has been named as Di Li, Observation of Yin Yang, Shape technique, Qing Wu technique, Observation of ground, Observation of residence or may be many other terms not yet discovered.
When studying the traditional history of Feng Shui one realizes the subject is not superstition but a science. Evidence of this is being discovered by archeologists as they investigate past cultures. The current cycle of human evolution began 6000 years ago in ancient Samurai (Iraq) with an advanced civilization. This civilization was dispersed following a climatic disorder of epic proportions which lead to further establishments of advanced civilizations in various parts of the world such as India, South America, and of course China. Knowledge of these events, which is found in the cultural myths and legends of the countries, form the essential the understanding and implementation of Feng Shui as well as the further learning criteria.
The history of the Traditional or Classical Feng Shui began with the Wandering Tribes which colonized the area now known as China. With their knowledge they established advanced civilizations alongside of the indigenous tribes of the Yangshao and Lundshan.
The pursuit of knowledge began tribal leaders who were named after their tribes; thus, Fu Xi was leader of the Fu Xi tribes, the tamers of animals having knowledge of and taming them; Sui Ren, the starters of fire, having knowledge of fire, husbandry, music, science, and mathematics; Shen Nong, the Holy Farmers who are credited with stating agriculture and traditional Chinese medicine. From Feng Shui perspective Fu Xi is the most important because it was he who established the 8 trigrams positioning in the arrangement known as the Xian Tian or pre heaven bagua around 3300.
Much of Chinese history is shrouded in mystery between 3300 BC and the beginning of the first Dynasty C.2000 BC. Notable heroes in this period were Huang Di - the Yellow Emperor, credited with establishing the 12 Earthly Branches and 10 Heavenly Stems or the Sexagesimal Cycle C 2736 BC (although a similar system was already in use in Babylon many centuries before) and Da Yu, the founder of the first dynasty and inventor of hydraulic engineering. According to legend, it is also believed that the first compass was invented during this period, consisting of a lodestone attached to a chariot and was said to make its army invincible.
Most people would question what the history of Feng Shui has to do with their present lives, or why should they study it. As they become acquainted with Feng Shui this answer becomes clear to them. They learn that over centuries the basis of Traditional or Classical Feng Shui has evolved from the natural processes of observation. Ancient man knew how nature worked by simple observation of his environment. This was the basis of all philosophy. He learned that water was very different from fire, and bronze or metal was different from wood. He knew the world in which he lived was in constant change. Some of the changes which he saw seemed nature and in harmony like when spring changed into summer and all life flourished. But other changes appeared unnatural, like excessive heat evaporating water supplies. From this understanding, man obtained incredible insight into the workings of nature and developed a system called the 5 transformational phases. The West has no definite name for this process; however, the term 5 Elements has been adopted. But whereas the 5 elements imply something tangible, the 5 transformational phases are not. This knowledge together with the yin and yang principles have form the backbone of all Chinese culture, including Feng Shui, the I Ching, Chinese medicine, and Chinese philosophy for the past 5000 years.
Han Yu theory is looking for the focus of Qi on land with respect to time. The author names it as Temporal Location theory in China's history. It is developed from the theory of Yi Jing (Classic) or I Ching which explains the universe is full of Qi. Before Qi was divided into two objects, Yin and Yang, the stage is called Tai Ji. When Yin and Yang grow, five elements or agencies can be found and then eight triagrams will be formed. In modern terminology, Yi Jing is indeed the 1 and 0 in binary theory. Yi models the universe and objects including intangible concepts and physical things by Yin and Yang. This is exactly what scientists want to use computer to model everything in the world as much as they can. Taoism is well known by Westerner in explaining the use of Tai Ji in Philosophy. In order to find out the Qi on ground, the shape of terrain is believed to be the main indicator. This is because the formation of terrain is relied on the settlement of Qi from Tai Ji stage. Therefore, the mountain range represents the strength of Qi which although invisible but strong enough to influence objects above. Kan Yu master uses "dragon" as a poetic term to represent the vivid change of the height and direction of mountain range. One should remenber the dragon symbolize good, energy, brightness and royalty in Chinese culture but totally opposite to the same word in western culture. In order to trace the strength of Qi and its direction, one should investigate the change of slope, profile and direction of mountain range with the help of compass.
Although Qi on ground can be identified by the pattern or topology of topography but the variation of Qi in terms of time should be discarded. The user should apply the mathematical modelling, Luo Shu, from Yi Jing to computer the change of Qi in terms of time. The author believes that this temporal model is the unique time series model in the human history.
The above 3 x 3matrix is commonly called Magic Square in western
mathematics. Mathematician only can tell the coincidence of sum of three
digits across three cells is always 15 but not any other special meanings.
However in Yi Jing, this is called the Book of Luo River discovered by
King Yu in Xia (about 2100 - 1600 BC). This matrix is also called
posterity of the nature eight
triagrams in Yi Jing. This is a map with north at bottom and south at top to show the change of Qi in term of time and direction. In fact, all maps in ancient Chinese have north at the bottom and so does all diagrams of triagram and hexagram in Yi Jing. The numbers represent the evelopment stage of an object growing from Tai Ji stage. By this pattern, the object is said to be the most harmonized and stabilized stage of its development. However, due to the change of surrounding environment under the philosophy of Qi in Yi Jing, the Qi changed in term of direction and time. Each number represents twenty years under Kan Yu theory. For example, Number 7 represents period between 1984 to 2004 and also indicates the direction West. The theory says then your house or city is facing East and has mountain or hill at the back, that is West, your house or city will collect the main Qi at Cycle 7. In Cycle 8 (2004-2024), the direction of Qi will be changed to North-west in where hilly area is recommended for site selection. At the advanced level of computation, direction will be divided into 24 or even 64 sectors and timing factor will be
differentiated into minute level. Each direction sector has a particular number to represent timing factors like year, month, hour and minutes can also be translated into numbers. With the combination of numbers under this mathematical modelling located at different direction, possibility of predicted event can be computed.
The author should point out that Kan Yu theory is used to predict trend of events and define the relative occurrence in term of possibility and fuzziness but not as most people think that it is about fortune teller's story without base. Event will happen based on the disturbance or enhancement of Qi at the predicting period. If the degree of influence of Qi is low, the significance of trend will be invisible. In opposite, the event will be highly possible to occur.
The predicted events are usually fire, thieves, death, illness, robbery,
hurt, birth, court case, quarrel, wealth and academic result. Since the
mathematical model is rigid, it can be applied at any time period from the
past to the future. However, the location of site is believed in the
earth. The author cannot assume the model may work in the southern
hemisphere but will recommend
researcher to test it in the other side of the globe as the theory was invented in the north hemisphere.
Basic science states that matter can neither be created nor destroyed referred to by some as the law of conservation, but only changed from one for to another which is the essential function of the 5 transformational phases. Life flourishes when this occurs naturally. However, when it happens unnaturally through the use of incorrect structures, colors or placement, pressure builds and stress is created. The discovered locations of stress are called stress points. Stress points can be in man and his environment including buildings. Humans absorb stress as easily as they absorb other emotions, but emotions that promote laughter have been found to relieve or eliminate stress. Feng Shui analysis of homes and businesses finding stress points and eliminate them by using simple, subtle cures. Feng shui consultants can balance any environment to relieve stress. Their basic method is the Sheng Cycle consisting of the 5 transformational phases that can aide everything in the world because all things are classified according to these principles. The following views the Cycle in detail.
There are the 5 Elements:
Water is the first element and represents winter. When falling from the sky it penetrates deep into the earth replenishing water tables and initiating birth for the abundance of all life to come. Water Qi therefore a descending type of Qi, meaning the deeper it goes the denser it becomes building pressure. Water colors are black and dark blue having wavy and flowing shapes. People of this type are either very bubbly on the surface or very deep and reflective, with no middle ground. They are outgoing, superficial, easy going, receptive, worrisome, passionate, philosophical, and generally unromantic but strongly sexually.
Wood is born of the water. Following the winter rains trees and shrubs sink their roots deep into the ground to seep up the water for nourishment, enabling growth. Spring means regeneration of plant life and as it re-emerges through the soil it expands, therefore wood Qi is expansive. The colors are green and light blue. The shapes are tall and upright. People of this type are positive, high spirited, always getting into difficulty but always get out as well. They are very optimistic and enjoy the spirit of youth while living for pleasure and fun!
Wood gives birth to fire because following the growth of spring vegetation comes summer being hot and bright, symbolizing wood giving birth to fire. This is the time of nature's zenith when plants reach their height of growth and become luxuriant. Fire needs wood for fuel and air as a catalyst. Fire Qi is ascending, like a fire where the flames are generally rising, reaching out for fuel. The colors, as one would expect, are red, pink, and peach, although these colors possess a warmth they are also considered fire. The shapes are triangular. Fire people are artistic with a good sense of proportion, attractive, idealistic, impulsive, and outgoing. Generally they have a problem finishing things. They are bright and intelligent.
Fire giving birth to earth is the Qi symbolized as rotating a stabilizing magnetic force called gravity which is the basis of all matter. The colors include all the colors naturally found on the earth's surface, from ivory beaches, to cream, beige, yellow corn fields, brown and terracotta. The shapes are square and squat. There are three different types of Earth people. Generally they are great supporters, assistants, conventional and conservative, gentle, pleasing, obsessive regarding details, indecisive, tactful, and dedicated to the public and service. Some are great defenders of human rights with a great inner strength. Some are fatalistic gamblers and always do things the hard way.
Earth gives birth to metal. This represents autumn when the weather turns colder and leaves fall from the trees. Metal Qi is contracting, condensing, cold and cutting. The colors are grey and grey metallic. The shapes are round and curving. There are two types of metallic people, like there are two sides of a coin, one is a great leader, but can dominate and conquer, constantly active with high ideas, ambitious and egotistical. They hate to lose, very self critical, strongly materialistic and can seem stubborn and overly ambitious. The other is a great orator, tactful, elegant and well liked by others. They like to be free, dislike supervision, and hate being ignored.
The Sheng cycle of harmony is characterized by having at least two elements in the prescribed order: Water creates wood, wood creates fire, fire creates earth, earth creates metal, metal creates water and so the cycle continues.
The Control Cycle: When structures, or forms, and colors appear in a different order than this, out of harmony, then one element will control another, leading to an increase in pressure and stress and causing inherent weaknesses in man made objects. The control cycle consists of the arrangements of water and fire, wood and earth, fire and metal, and earth and water.
Even though the Sheng cycle is an important methodology in Feng Shui it is accompanied the yin and yang element which is at the heart of Feng Shui and Chinese philosophy. Yin and Yang is the essence of nature. Yin and yang is the constant motion of nature where everything is in perpetual change, moving from one extreme to another to create equilibrium or universal balance.
A major symbol of the yin and yang universal balance is daylight and darkness. Our planet is always half in daylight and half in darkness. When the sun reaches its median, an almost yin yang shadow is cast upon the earth.
The yin yang symbol clearly denotes the life or natural cycle. Yang denotes birth and growth to maturity while yin represents the declining phases thereafter. It is interesting to note, that the yang (clear spot) inside the yin dark hemisphere, falls in the area that was once known as Sumeria, believed to be the birthplace of modern civilization.
Further natural changes are denoted: The yang phase rep[resents the season of Spring and Summer when there is major growth in plant and animal life. Yin represents autumn and winter, the phases of decline or decay when life ends in order to begin again. Here one finds another essential coincidence in this equilibrium cycle, since most of humanity's required oxygen comes from plant leaves, which decay in the northern hemisphere's yin phase, one would think there would be an oxygen supply shortfall. However, this is simultaneously balanced by the spring and summer months in the southern hemisphere to create a stable state.
The yin yang symbol symbolizes life itself. As been shown the light and dark hemispheres represent light and darkness, or day and night, the phases of life birth, maturity, and old age, and the seasons of the year. The symbol of the yin and yang is continuous, when yin stops yang begins and vice versa, just as life is continuous as are the seasons; there are no interruptions. Most nature based philosophies and religious traditions hold to this perpetual life concept; some refer to it as birth death and rebirth.
As can be seen the yin and yang principles are embodied in every part of human life and therefore can be employed to correct maladies in life. Food, for example, to eat healthy one should consume three parts yang to two parts yin. Feng shui consultants the Feng Shui Institute teach about such foods. Such methods help hyperactive children, using more yin food than yang.
Other aspects of Feng Shui can enhance other activities of life as well. For example the Institute's Dowsing and Earth acupuncture course teaches one how to access the deeper levels of the consciousness in order to detect and cure harmful radiation emitted by stagnant streams, mineral and gas deposits or even geomagnetic grids.
Such self-development can continue with pendulum dowsing which further explores life's mysteries including secrets of the universe. Included along this path of learning are remedies to a healthier diet, curing Sick Building Syndrome, settling bad neighbor problems, and even clearing unwanted spirits from houses.
As dowsing has always been considered a geomantic art, there is included Shamanism and a PowerPoint library devoted to nature's guardians - Trees and their hidden Shamanic meanings.
Two examples will illustrate some of the inherent weaknesses that can occur within the control cycle. A white (metal color) door (wood shape, taller than wide) usually more often sticks or contains some internal problem. To correct this one can paint the door dark blue or add some water characteristic, and as if by magic, the door works properly.
A car on a road which is classified as a water element because it allows things to flow, and the car is of the metal element. Because metal and water are next to each other in the Sheng Cycle arrangement that would appear to work fine. However, a red car (fire and metal will deteriorate faster than a black or dark blue one because red is fire which attacks metal and is further attacked by water.
NOTE: This methodology can be applied to any product just by inspecting its color, shape, and use. The best performing aspects will reside within the Sheng cycle.
The following are some concepts and believes that have been found not corrected or even totally wrong in Kan Yu theory:
1. Facing south is the best.
2. Feng Shui comes from Taoism or Buddhism.
3. Kan Yu is totally a superstition.
4. There are dragons under the ground explained by the theory.
5. It is related to soul and mediumistic.
6. This is about evil and god.
7. Mirror can enhance Qi.
8. Walk through Nine Stars is cure.
9. It is about palmistry or face observation.
10. Hanging flute and ba-gau can avoid evil.
11. Color can totally adjust and enhance Qi.
This is a much-debated topic, and the scientific community considers Feng
Shui as a pseudoscience. But according to the Feng Shui architect Cai
Hong, it depends on what you consider as science and what you regard as
Feng Shui. Cai Hong defines Feng Shui from two angles, the environmental
angle and the folk angle. The environmental angle would reveal mans
relation with the environment. Our actions affect the environment, and the
environment affects us as well. Feng Shui is a soft science, dealing
with the subtle aspects, like thoughts and feelings. Thinking along these
lines, there is Science in Feng Shui, and the effects can be subjected to
scientific study. Defining Feng Shui from a folk angle, it is a Chinese
folk belief clearly. Ideas like changing luck, future telling and making
one wealthy all of a sudden, do not boast of any scientific background.
Feng Shui can be summarized as a combination of science and art. Beyond the label, what matters is a positive energy that it promises to offer. After all, would you object to some rearrangement of some furniture in the bedroom, if it may help to achieve a good sleep at night? Feng Shui is as simple as that. There is no harm in putting such little Feng Shui practices into action in our life. Who would say no to a bit of harmony with nature!
Chinese lifestyles and alternative eastern philosophies are becoming more and more sought after. At first, everyone thought it just a trend that would soon pass, but time and the general publics interest proved skeptics wrong. Feng Shui is still going strong with a following that is growing every year.
Feng Shui is the practice of balancing your house, life, and even finances. It is believed that yin and yang should be in harmony, at peace in all that you surrounded with.
If you are thinking of experimenting with the art of Feng Shui; there are
a few practical steps you can follow to get the feel of it without
spending too much money. The added advantage of a Feng Shui home is
that it is visually very appealing.
The entry way to your house should be clean. No obstacles like plants or toys should limit the entrance of good energy (chi) into your home. It is also beneficial to remove clutter behind the door.
Stimulate learning in yourself and your children by placing books where it can be seen when you enter the front door.
Any broken object should be fixed. This allows you to release your frustrations and smooth the path of your life.
You can spice up your love live by placing plants in your bedroom. Place 3 or 9 plants in your bedroom to introduce some new energy. It will be a bonus if the plant has pink flowers.
In your bedroom, it is helpful to place your bed in a commanding position. This means you can see the door while lying in bed while being as far away as possible from the door. This will allow you to be calmer and stronger.
Helpful people will enter your life if you hang wind chimes around your home, bedroom, and office.
The belief is when the yin and yang is in the balance in your life your
finances will also improve. Follow these easy steps and see if it
An energetic fountain near your front door will bring more cash flow and key people into your life.
To keep your funds from draining you should keep all drains blocked. Close your bathroom doors and keep drains closed when they are not in use.
In your office or work place, you should position your desk to see the entrance. It will help you encounter more opportunities and make you a winner in your field.
Fix any leaks. Water represents money and emotions, so do not let it run out.
Clean your stove. The stove represents abundance, so be sure it is clean and in working order.
Mirrors are an instant cure for many Feng Shui problems. You need
to be careful though that you do not accidently bring what you are trying
to avoid by wrongly placing mirrors in your space.
Always hang whole mirrors never fragmented mirrors. Broken mirrors may let you feel broken inside.
Bring beautiful nature inside with mirrors. This activates natures chi energy inside.
Use mirrors where they will add life and movement.
Hang a mirror near your entrance to activate the water element.
Never hang a mirror in your bedroom.
If you feel Feng Shui is helpful and something you want to further explore, there are many books available, or even better, I would advise you to get a Feng Sui consultant.
Feng Shui Bedroom
The bedroom is the place where people relax and feels comfortable for a long time. For high productivity, sleep is critical. To have a sound sleep, it is necessary to have a bedroom which offers positive energy and comforting environment. To achieve all this, feng shui bedroom is inevitable.
A feng shui bedroom is a design structured for the bedroom that enhances better productivity. It gives importance to strong, healthy relationships with positive energy. It is designed by following many important principles related to feng shui.
It offers peace, love, harmony and happiness.
The positive effects of feng shui bedroom are reflected whole house.
You will get nurtured by nature directly.
Positivity is widespread around the house.
Your front door should not face your bedroom. The
bedroom should be kept far from the door as it spreads insecurity.
Close all the doors before getting ready to sleep. A feng shui bedroom provides positivity. If the doors are closed, positivity remains in that particular area.
You should hang happy pictures inside the bedroom. Pictures should make you feel motivated, happy and comfortable. In that way, you can avoid negativity.
Do not use any bright colors for your bedroom. Make use of smooth light colors that enhances peace.
There should be big air holes inside the bedroom. It can increase the energy flow. Keep bedroom clean and tidy.
Editor's note:All Chinese translations are based on Hanyupinyin (the Phonetic transcriptions of Chinese Characters ) but not Wade System. The readers are recommended to refer to the original Chinese Classics for further reading and research if they can. Otherwise the author's translation should be treated as reference only because the author believe that himself may not translate complete meaning from the original text which has no punctuation. The author also hopes that the reader can read this article without bias. The main concern is those who do not understand and judge the theory too early will lose one's bearing. In addition, one based on limited understanding or wrong information to label it as evil may become superstition.
The reader is recommended to read more ancient books on proper translation of this subject. There are many misleading modern English translations. The author can provide additional list of reference if requested [email protected].
by Thomas Wai-pang Lee
Shen, Xu. BC 179-157. Annotation of "Huai Nang Zi".
Jun-Sheng, Shu. "Shui Wen Tong Xun".
Ri Zhe Lie Chuan of Shi Ji, AC 373-396.
Encyclopedia in Qing Dynasty.
---, "Qing Nang Jing".
Xian-Tao, Shu. 221-297 BC, "Sou Shan Ji".
Jing Wu Zi, Jing Wu Jung; Chuen-Yan, Lai. "A Feng Shui Model as a Location Index", Annuals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol.64, No.4.
Deyong, Li. "Wuxing tanyuan". Zhongguo zhexue IV (1980). 70-90.
A.C.Graham. Yin-yang and the nature of correlative thinking, Singapore, The Institute of East Asian Philosophies, Occasional Paper and Monograph Series No.6, 1986.
Qing Nang Zhong Shu.
Ren-Kui, Li Editor 1979, Feng Shui Ci Lin Bi Jie.
Pu, Guo (not proved). Bruial Classic.
Evelyn Lip, A Layman's Guide to Feng Shui.
Derek Walters, The Feng Shui Handbook.