Back to Home Page or Contents Page or Past and present beliefs or Index
The Jains inherited the triloka and envisioned it (the world) soimular to an hour-glass, squeezed in at the middle. Above (Urdhvaloka) are a series of heavens of increasing brightness, at the top of which is "the slightly curved place" (Isatpragbhara) where the liberated and disembodied souls dwell. In the middle is the Madhyaloka, which includes the continent inhabited by humans. Below is the Adholoka, a series of increasingly terrible hells-from which release is eventually certain, through the intervening time may be unimaginably long. A.G.H.
Bowker, John, The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, New York, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 240
and witchcraft Great
and present Beliefs People
and sects Rituals
and texts Shamanism