Lamaism, in Tibet, represents the body of religious doctrine and institutions that were derived from Mahayana Buddhism, which was introduced in the 7th century. This Buddhism was married to both the Shamaistic Bon Religion (see Shamanism), and Tantric elements. The original Bon was a religion of magical and exorcist practices, which made the Lamaism dependent on the use of mantras, elaborate ritual, and the worship of guardian deities and living incarnations of Buddha. The double incarnation of the Bodhisattva is represented by the institutions of the Dalai-Lama (the political power) and the Tashi-Lama (the spiritual power). The two repositories of Lamaism are the Kan-jur with 108 books, and the Tan-jur containing 225 volumes. A.G.H.


Riland, George, The New Steinerbooks Dictionary of Paranormal, New York, Warner Books, Inc., 1980, p. 162