Ten Commandments Definition


The Ten Commandments or laws are contained with the Decalogue that God proclaimed to Moses, as the representative of the Jewish people. The Ten Commandments are recorded in Exodus 20:2-17 and Deuteronomy 5:6-21.

I am the Lord thy God who have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. Thou shall have no other gods before me. Thou shall not make unto thee any carved image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth; Thou shall not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them; for I, the Lord thy God, am a jealous, God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; And showing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments. Thou shall not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain; for the Lord will not hold him guiltless that takes his name in vain. Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days shall thou labor and do all thy work; But the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord thy God; in it thou shall not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy manservant, nor the maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates; For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, and sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day; wherefore, the Lord blessed the Sabbath day, and hallowed it. Honor thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be long upon the land which the Lord thy God gave thee. Thou shall not kill. Thou shall not commit adultery. Thou shall not bear false witness against thy neighbor. Thou shall not covert thy neighbor’s house; nor thou shall not covert thy neighbor’s wife, no his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor anything that is thy neighbor’s. (Exodus 20:2-17)



These Commandments were written or carved on stone tables that Moses carried down with him from Mount Sinai. When reaching the bottom Moses angrily smashed and broke the tablets when seeing the Israelites worshipping the golden calf. Afterwards, again Moses climbed the mountain to speak with God and received the second set of tablets which were kept in the Ark of the Covenant.

As noted, two Biblical versions of the Ten Commandments are given. They are substantially and almost verbally identical, excepting that the reasons given for the observance of the fourth commandment are not the same. In Exodus 20, the reason is based on one’s obligation to God as the Creator of the world. Whereas in Deuteronomy 5, the reason assigned is one’s duty toward others and the memory of the bondage in Egypt. Some believe that Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy was the original, but when Moses reviewed it just before his departure from his people he changed it to Keep the Sabbath day to sanctify it, as the Lord thy God has commanded thee to add a fresh and fuller significance which the history of Israel suggested.

The Ten Commandments served a duel purpose as many contend; they form a covenant between God and his people, and serve as a moral law, or code, by which his people are to live by. However, it should be noted, to achieve the full observance of the Ten Commandments an elaborate system, known as Mosaic Law, was put into place. This Mosaic Law involved a vast legal system of Israel, civil, criminal, judicial, and ecclesiastical framed after the Decalogue. The Mosaic Law was to be a temporary experiment, while the Decalogue was to be permanent.

To many this permanency has been proven because throughout the centuries millions of people, especially the Israelites and Christians, have abided by the Decalogue, and still do. In the New Testament Christ held it to be a perfect code; when a young man asked him how to gain eternal life Christ quoted from the Decalogue and told the man to obey it and live it (Mark 10:19; Luke 18:18-20).

The author and authority of this law, the Decalogue, is clearly stated: “I am the Lord thy God who have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.” According to the Israelites and all those following them, it was their God who authored the law and established its authority. The law was not and could not be questioned or changed. For, to question the law would be to question their relationship with God, which was prohibited: Thou shall have no other gods before me. Thou shall not make unto thee any carved image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth; Thou shall not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them; for I, the Lord thy God, am a jealous, God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; And showing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments. Therefore, neither could the law be changed, for it was and is believed to change the law would be to change the nature of Jehovah. This is held to be an impossibility because it is believed that God is; as he himself stated, I am. To those believers, there is no escape, only acceptance; I am…thou shall.

The majority of believers believe the Decalogue, a series of prohibitations, was given by God because the people to whom it was given deserved it due to their behavior; a belief still held by many. Some reason that if men were not inclined to worship something other than God, the first commandment would never have been necessary. This false worship by the Israelites was a transgression which needed reprimand. As Paul later put it, “The law was added because of transgressions.” The law takes on a negative form because, as the continuance of prominence belief states, it can only restrain the action; it can never promote positive virtue. Not being able to transform a sinful heart is the reason why religious, as well as statutory, laws are essentially negative.

The order and division of the Ten Commandments have been debated throughout the centuries. Various reasons were given for such divisions based on the particular thoughts or motives of the devotees and/or researchers. As original given the commandments were not numbered; and a common consensus is that the commandments pertaining to man’s duties to God were divided from the commandments concerning man’s duties toward his fellow man. A.G.H.


Bowker, John, The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, New York, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 962
Unger, Merrill F., Unger’s Bible Dictionary, Chicago, Moody Press, 1966, Decalogue, pp. 256-257

The Gospel According to Lilith: Book One



Transmogrification Was Only the Beginning


Author ‘s new view of the Biblical origins of good and evil


Vallejo, CA – (Release Date: January 2010) – Lonnie Hicks, in a work of historical fiction, gives an alternative version of the birth of good and evil with the release of his new novel, “The Gospel According to Lilith: Book One,” published through Hicks Publishing..

Hicks adapts his historical fiction novel around God’s wife Lilith (her sacred name was Asherah) and her bewitchment by Lucifer, God’s most favored angel. A child is conceived of this union. Hicks recreates this story where Lilith finds herself exiled along with Lucifer to Earth after an all-out war in heaven. God’s punishment is that fully one-third of the angels who sided with her and Lucifer were banished to Earth for all eternity.

Thus begins an engrossing re-telling of creation, from the development of Earth to the evolution of humanity, to Jesus’ role on earth–of every major event in the bible from Lilith’s point of view.

In the telling Hicks incorporates new archeological findings in Israel (see the November 2008 Nova special “The Bible’s Buried Secrets” http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/bible/program.html) which gives a radical new picture of who wrote the bible and the origins of both the bible and the Israelites themselves.

Hicks and Nova assert that God had a wife, (Asherah); that the early Israelites were indigenous to Canaan, not outsiders, and were serfs and vassals of Egyptian overlords. These humble serfs became revolutionaries, rose up and gained their freedom in this context, and wrote bible which created history-changing concepts of justice, freedom and equality. The story of Lilith is part of this story and the introduction of these ideas in history.

These ideas have come down the centuries to influence all of western history and are at the very core of our American society itself; and its origins and history. “Thomas Jefferson,” Hicks notes “used the bible as his blueprint for the outlines of the American Constitution, insisting that small, egalitarian communities were the bedrock of democratic society”—much like those established among early Israelites.

In The Gospel According to Lilith, Hicks’ incorporates these new findings to illuminate what some of the hidden meanings in the bible actually are and Lilith’s role in generating those ideas.

The outcome in the book is a completely new vision of what is going on in the bible, of what is good, and what is evil and why; of who and what the conflict between Satan and God was actually about. What is the symbolism in the Garden of Eden of the serpent and the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil and their relationship to Asherah? Readers discover a fresh, bold, point of view regarding God, the Creation, and even Lucifer. For more information on this book, interested parties can log on to www.lonniehicks.com where Hicks has a companion reader and study guide to the novel. Email: [email protected]. Review copies and audio chapters available upon request.

About the Author:

Lonnie Hicks born in Chicago, graduated Howard University with a Masters in Politics and, in addition, received a MBA degree from UC Berkeley. He has taught courses, including the bible, in Institutional Studies classes in the Bay Area.


The Gospel According to Lilith: Book One by Lonnie Hicks


Publication Date: January 2010

Trade Paperback; $14.95; 259 pages; 978-0-984-43486-33

The e-book (9.99) is available now and the audio book will be available in mid-March


Below is a link to website, Amazon. A New Historical Fiction Novel: “The Gospel According To Lilith



Yesod, Hebrew YSVD, “foundation,” is the ninth Sephirah of the Kabbalah Tree of Life, located on the Middle Pillar between Tiphareth and Malkuth.

Universal symbolism:

Name of God: ShDI AL ChI, Shaddai (Almighty Living God)
Archangel: GBRAL, Gabriel, (Strength of God)
Angelic Host: KRVBIM, Kernibim , Powers of the Elements
Astrological Correspondence: LBNH, Levanah (the Moon)
Tarot Correspondence: The four Nines of the pack
Elemental Correspondence: Air
Magical Image: A beautiful and very strong naked man
Additional Symbols: The Treasure House of Images
in Atziluth – indigo,
in Briah – violet,
in Yetzirah – very dark purple,
in Assiah – yellowish, citrine flecked azure
Correspondence in the Microcosm: The nephew
Correspondence in the Body: The genitals
Grade of Initiation: 2=7, Theoricus
Qlippoth: GMLIAL, Gamaliel (the Obscene Ones)

Text from the Thirty-two Paths of Wisdom corresponding to this Sephirah: “The Ninth Path is called the Pure Intelligence because it purifies the Numerations, it improves and corrects the designing of their representation, and disposes the unity with which they are combined without diminution or division.”

Yesod is the eternal and immutable balance between the “full” and expansive emanation of Netzach and the “empty” and restrictive emanation of Hod, or between the manifestation and reabsorption of all things; Yesod is the unique act which simultaneously reveals and reintegrates all that is emanated and manifested; this is the reason it is also called kol, the “all.” Like the Sephiroth the Sephiroth emerge in an instant, in time conception, it can be aid to have emerged without emerging; in essence it was always there so there never was an emanation or manifestation except in a subjective view. Simply stated, the Sephiroth and all Sephirahs within always existed, therefore their manifestations, each and as a total always existed; everything is subjective to those observing it; this is why the Sephiroth, the emanations of God, is subjective to man who lives in a time-frame. A.G.H.


Greer, John Michael. The New Encyclopedia of the Occult. St. Paul, MN, Llewellyn Worldwide. p. 524
Schaya, Leo, The Universal Meaning of the Kabbalah, Secaucus, NJ, University Books. 1971. p. 55



Yechidah (Hebrew YChDH, “only one”) in Kabbalistic theory is the highest aspect of the human soul corresponding to the first Sephirah Kether, and is included in the neshamah. The yechidah closely corresponds to the Neoplatonist concept of the scintilla or synteresis, the spark of divine light at the center of the self. A.G.H.


Greer, John Michael. The New Encyclopedia of the Occult. St. Paul, MN, Llewellyn Worldwide. p. 524


Yahweh was the original god of the Israelite and Judah kingdoms. The origin of his worship dates from the early Iron Age or perhaps the late Bronze Age. His name may have been an epithet to El, head of the Bronze Age Canaanite pantheon, (“El who is present, who makes himself manifest.”), or a great Arabian god (Kenite hypothesis).At present no dispute of his leadership is found as coming from either kingdom. This is affirmed from the oldest biblical literature (covering eleven or twelve centuries) and seen as a typical ancient Near Eastern “divine warrior” leading a heavenly army against the enemies of Israel; and there was a bound (covenant) formed between Yahweh and the Israelites for which he would protect them provided they worshipped no other god. Such a covenant had not previously been know in Near Eastern religion. The Israelites thereby claimed to be God’s chosen people.

This bound or covenant eventually promoted Yahwism, Yahweh the supreme god. Such a religious view became to be more firmly held in the royal courts in the area which created rivalry. To Yahweh were assigned cosmic attributes which were previously attributed to other gods notably BaalEl, and Asherah. Yahweh became the supreme god destroying older pantheons of gods and goddesses. Yahweh grew very intolerant.

To better understand the rivalry between the gods one must know that ancient nations, or people, had their own national god. Therefore, the belief in Yahweh separated or distinguished the Israelites from the Moabites, children of Molech, who believed in and worshipped Chemosh or Milcom, the god of the Ammonites. In case of Yahweh, scholars think he replaced El who was originally the “god of Israel.” Yahweh became synonymous with El, meaning “god,” head of the Canaanite pantheon with Asherah as his consort and Baal plus the other deities. Certain tribes introduced Yahweh. The concept spread and more believed. Asherah became Yahweh’s consort. At first Yahweh and Baal co-existed and eventually competed with Yahweh being champion. This is how god and goddesses were formed and undid. It is suggested what helped Yahweh’s influence and permanency was Saul, Israel’s first king.

When Israel inherited the Canaanite religion including the Canaan pantheon Yahweh was one of the seventy children of El, each being a patron over each of the seventy nations. This is mentioned in several works “according to the number of divine sons” Israel is the portion of Yahweh. Apparently in later Masoretic texts this polytheism became troublesome so “according to the number of children of Israel” was substituted.

The movement away from polytheism toward monotheism is most interesting. The development of monotheism mainly involved social changes which included the conquest of people. This is seen in the Ugrant religion: El and Asherah headed the divine family and controlled the activities of their children as was mirrored on earth. However, on earth, times were changing with the formation of extended families. As seen in the Bible from the sixth century BCE onward traumatic changes occurred in the patriarchal family structure. The role of the dominant family patriarch changed, he became less dominant and his heirs resumed more responsibilities. As cultural family lineages diminished family values also changed. The individual became more responsibility for his own behavior which led to the dependency on a single deity who controlled the cosmic activities as they were once controlled by the divine family members. Just as the individual replaced the patriarchal family, a single god replaced the divine family.

This further was demonstrated in a worldview. There were the neo-Assyrian and neo-Babylonian conquests. As long as Israel was a group of nations each having its particular god things remained all right each nation was as powerful as its god. However, this pictured changed following conquests of alien nations. Being defeated by a non-Israel nation would normally mean admitting the gods of the defeating nation were more powerful than Yahweh; the Assyrian gods or the Babylonian gods were more powerful than Yahweh and defeated him. But to the Israelites this was not the case. They refused to believe that the Assyrians defeated them because the power of the Assyrian’s god Marduk was greater than the power of Yahweh; rather they believed their defeat and exile was Yahweh’s punishment upon them, a face saving technique.

After the post-exilic area monotheism was well established not only among the Israelites but throughout the western world. (see Yahweh in Christianity) This view was vastly shared: nations and men served one god who instructed events of all history.A.G.H.


Yahweh. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yahweh>



Uriel is an angel mentioned in 1 book of Enoch, served as guide to Enoch in the upper heavens. He governs an angelic army. In 14 Ezra he reveals visions to Ezra. In the midrash he is one of four angels surrounding the throne of God. A.G.H.


Bowker, John, The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, New York, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 1009



Torah (Hebrew, “teaching,” “law, docrine”) is designated as the teachings of the Jewish religion. In the Pentateuch the term “Torah” can mean all laws on a particular subject, Leviticus 7:2, or the summation of all laws, Deuteronomy 4:44. The Torah is also used to refer to the Pentateuch in contrast to the Prophets and Hagiography, as in Tanach, and later a distinction was made between the written and oral law. Although the rabbis taught that “Moses received the Torah from Sinai, ” they also taught it was in existence before the creation of the world, and Rabbi Akiva declared it to have been “the precious instrument by which the world was created.” Rav Hoshaiah equated it with Wisdom described in the Book of Proverbs, and Philo, in his discussion of logos (word of God), identified the logos with the Torah. Such conjectures led to much discussion among several later Jewish philosophers.

However, it is generally agreed that the purpose of the Torah was to make Israel a kingdom of priests, a holy nation (Deuteronomy 33:4), and much Hebrew poetry is concerned with the sweetness and joy entailed in keeping it (Psalms 19 and 119). Nevertheless, the message of the Torah is claimed to be for all humanity, and “a pagan who studies the Torah is like a High Priest.” Hillel, in a famous exchange, summarized the Torah in the maximum, “What is hateful to you, do not to your fellow” (B. Shab, 31a), and Akiva maintained its overriding principle was “Love you neighbor as yourself” (Leviticus 19:18). Maimonides laid down in his thirteen principles of the Jewish faith that the Torah is immutable and that it was given in its entirety to Moses. The belief in the divine origin of both the written and oral Torah remains the touchstone of Orthodox Judaism. The Karaites accepted the written but not the oral law, while the Progressive movements tend to distinguish between the moral and ritual law.

The Torah, by many, is considered the cornerstone of the Jewish religion and law, thus the scrolls are thought to be most holy and sacred by the pious. Every synagogue keeps several scrolls, frequently protected in a luxurious covering of rich fabric often decorated with silver ornaments. A.G.H.


Bowker, John, The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, New York, Oxford University Press, 1997, pp. 984-985
Funk &Wagnalls New Encyclopedia, 1979, 23, 193



Tiphateth, Hebrew TPhARTh, “beauty,” is the sixth and central Sephirah of the Kabbalah Tree of Life, located in the center of the Pillar of Balance or Consciousness.

Universal symbolism:

Name of God:
 YHVH ALVH VDAaTh, Tetragrammation Eloah va-Daath (Lord God of Knowledge)
Archangel: MKIAL, Michael, (He Who Is As God)
Angelic Host: MLKIM, Malakim, (Kings)
Astrological Correspondence: ShMSh, Shemesh (the sun)
Tarot Correspondence: The four Sixes and four Knights or Princes of the pack
Elemental Correspondence: Air
Magical Image: A naked child; a crowned and throned king; a crucified man
Additional Symbols: The cube, the cross of six squares, the truncated pyramid
Additional Title: Microprosopus, the Lesser Countenance
in Atziluth – clear rose pink,
in Briah – golden yellow,
in Yetzirah – rich salmon pink,
in Assiah – golden amber
Corrospondence in the Microcosm: The imagination of Ruach
Correspondence in the Body: The solar plexus
Grade of Initiation: Adeptus Minor
Qlippoth: ThGRIRVN, Tagirion (the Disputers)

Text from the Thirty-two Paths of Wisdom corresponding to this Sephirah: “The Sixth Path is called the Mediating Intelligence, because in it are multiplied the influxes of the Emanations, for it causes that influence to flow into all the reservoirs of the blessings, with which these themselves are united.”

In Tiphareth God’s love is revealed as the plentitude and blissful harmony of all his possibilities. They appear as many particular archetypes, each connected by essential fusion and qualitative interpenetration. Each archetype truly representing God, is God, is unique by itself but joined to the others through the essence of God, thus also displaying his unity. This Sephirah reveals the “heart” of God or his compassion which infuses everything which is “above” and “below,” “on the right” or “on the left” in the world of emanation. The true knowledge of such emanation is that even though all of the particular archetypes are shown they all emanate from a “center” and are of the same essence.

The essential principle of this divine love is the identity of the absolute (ain)-which excludes everything not of itself-and of the infinite (en sof)-which includes all that is real. From this essential principle of divine beauty radiates both the pure truth of the only reality, eclipsing all that it is not, and at the same time unlimited bliss that each thing effortlessly floats in the essence of God, Kether.

Divine love necessarily embodies both rigorous truth and generous bliss; the measurement of created things requires the judgment of their qualities, universal law on one hand and on the other the unlimitedness of grace, giving rise to all life, joy, and freedom; in other words, two opposites working in harmony. The manifestation of divine love illustrates grace crystallizing in the created “measures” or forms and radiating through them, leaving the imprint of the author on the work of his creation.

The final product, specie or thing, exhibits the fullness of the possibilities of its kind. Simply, every one of its kind, in its personal way, exhibits qualities of the spiritual archetype. A thing is ugly only if it participates only imperfectly in its pure archetype, or if its species is not in conformity with divine perfection. A perfect creation most likely displays an “inner” and “outer” beauty; the outer aspect, or aspects, revealing an inner quality. This can be observed in things, and both non-human and human species with the consideration of man’s reasoning, free-will and a relationship with the divine or the lack of the thereof which can effect the appearance. A.G.H.


Greer, John Michael. The New Encyclopedia of the Occult. St. Paul, MN, Llewellyn Worldwide. pp. 487-488
Schaya, Leo, The Universal Meaning of the Kabbalah, Secaucus, NJ, University Books. 1971. pp. 49-54



Thaumiel (Hebrew ThAVMIAL, “Twins of God”) in Kabbalistic tradition are the Qlippoth or demonic powers associated with Kether, the first Sephirah of the Tree of Life. Its traditional form is giant dual heads with bat-like wings, but no bodies. They are called the Divided Ones.

Thaumiel is said by some to be associated with Keither, the first Sephirah of the Kabbalistic Tree of Life, but in actuality, Thaumiel is in opposition to Keither. However some explain the Sphere a shadow or a capsule of the Sephirah. This is why Thaumiel is called a Sphere while Keither is a Sephirah; a Sphere might be consider the abode of demonic or negative powers while a Sephirah is the abode for angelic or positive powers, which is the reason for every Sephirah being opposed by a Sphere. Some claim that such a division was necessary in the process of creation. Thaumiel representing the “duality of God” opposes Keither which represents the “unity of God.” Angels of this Thaumiel order before their separation, cause by seeking more power, from God sought the perfection of or unity with God, but after their separation or fall they became the duality of God, the very opposite of his unity; they became an order of demons, and in this lesser state “the Polluted of god.” The cortex or outer form of the Thaumiel is known as the Cathariel, “the Broken” or “Fearful Light of God.”

Within this order there are two main adversaries, Satan, the Adversary and King, and Moloch, forming this very stressful duality against the unity of God. A.G.H.


Greer, John Michael. The New Encyclopedia of the Occult. St. Paul, MN, Llewellyn Worldwide. p. 478
Moloch. <http://www.pantheon.org/articles/m/moloch.html>.
Thamiel. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qliphoth#Thamiel>.


Yahweh in Hebrew, Yhwh, Yhvh, Jehovah

Tetragrammaton, the sacred name of God. In Hebrew “four-letter word” or symbol meaning yod-ye-vau-he (YHWH) and signifying Yahweh. It is pronounced in Hebrew as “Adomai,” and written generally as JHYH with variations of JHVH or YHVH. In English it became Jehovah.

This has often been confused with God introduction of Himself to Moses, “I Am That I Am.” (Exodus 3:14) This particular introduction was derived from the god Ab-braham or Father Braham who introduced himself in Sanskrit ‘Tat Sat’–“I Am That that Is.”

The root YHWH is radical of HWH, he-vau-he, meaning “being” or “life” or “woman” which were interchangeable concepts in the ancient Middle East. These identical letters in Latin are E-V-E: Eve. So the central or inner meaning of the Tetragrammaton is Eve, the Mother of All Living.

In the Gnostic Gospels this concept also is conveyed. The Wisdom of God, or the Divine Spirit and Mother, is believed the real creator of the world. Allegedly her son, who was called the demiurge, stold his power from his mother and with it created the world. The early Gnostics believed the demiurge was the God which the orthodox Christians adored and not the true God or Supreme Being which they symbolized as Iao.

The Tetragrammaton had two versions. EHYH, the lesser-known one, comes from Hayya, another one of Eve’s many names, which designates the Goddess in her special connection to women in childbirth. On Samaritan phylacteries the male and female versions of the Tetragrammaton were intertwined.

The Hebrew mystics embodied this sacred name of God into the lore of Kabbalism. The “ineffable name” of God by which all the powers of the universe could be controlled. Further Kabbalistic thought holds that the name YHWH contained all the Forces of Nature, and since some thought it could be divided this was a indication according to Kabbalistic theory that God had lost His Shekina, his feminine part or the Great Mother, who, as believed by mystics, had to return before there would be peace or harmony in the universe.

The Tetragrammaton has at times been referred to as Sem ha-mephoras or Schemahamphorasch, perhaps the origin of the word “semaphore,” which resembles the Hindu samjna. “The Rabbinic tradition declares that Sam ha-mephoras either was inscribed on a holy phallic stone buried in the Great Gate of Mother Earth, or else was the stone itself, also called Eben stijjah, the Stygian Stone, or Stone of the Deeps. It was connected with the sexual myth of the descent of the Father Heaven’s phallus into the yoni of the virgin Mother Earth, to “unlock her fountains,” that is, to stimulate the Nether Upsurge of world-sustaining blood. Sexual organs of God and Goddess lay at the center of the holy of Holies. ‘David is supposed to have found at the digging of the foundation of the temple, the Eben stijjah, Stone of the Deeps, that unlocked the fountain of the great deep, and on which the Sem ha-mephoras, the outspoken name of God, was inscribed.'” A.G.H.

Sources: 2756.