Tyche

 


Tyche was a Greco-Roman goddess of good fortune. She appeared as a nereid in the in the Hymn to Demeter (Homer). According to Hesiod’s Theogony she is the daughter of Okeanos, but elsewhere she is said to be the daughter of Zeus and Hera. She is depicted as carrying a rudder or, alternatively, cornucopia. She was also known as Agathe Tyche, the consort of Agathos Daimon. Tyche became widely identified with the Asian mother goddess Kybele but was replaced, in the Roman era, by the goddess Fortuna and was associated symbolically with a wheel device. She was popular for a long time. It was recorded that the Emperor Julian sacrifice to Tyche in Antioch in 361-362 AD and her temple was still intact during the reign of Theodosius (379-395). A.G.H.


Source:

Jordan, Michael, Encyclopedia of Gods, New York, Facts On File, Inc. 1993, p. 269

Palaemon

 


Palaemon, Greco-Roman, was a minor sea god, originally Melikertes, son of Ino (Leukothea). He was deified by the gods when his mother, cradling her son in her arms, threw herself from a cliff into the sea. The reason being, according to legends, she became insane or was escaping the wrath of Athanas, King of Thebes. A.G.H.


Source:

Jordan, Michael, Encyclopedia of Gods, New York, Facts On File, Inc. 1993, p. 199

Okeanides

 


Okeanides were sea deities, Greco-Roman. These minor goddesses were assigned the guardianship of the oceans by the great gods and invoked by seafarers. In an alternative tradition, they are river gods, sons of OkeanosA.G.H.


Source:

Jordan, Michael, Encyclopedia of Gods, New York, Facts On File, Inc. 1993, p. 192

Nike

 


Nike was the goddess of victory, Greco-Roman. She was depicted as a winged messenger bringing the laurel wreath to the victor of battle. This deity was of Greek origin, appearing in Hesiod’s Theogony, later adopted by the Romans and worshipped extensively throughout Asia Minor, including Sardis. In other descriptions of this deity, Athena carries Nike as a small winged figure. A.G.H.


Source:

Jordan, Michael, Encyclopedia of Gods, New York, Facts On File, Inc. 1993, p. 183

Nereides

 


Nereides, Greco-Roman, were animistic spirits of the sea, considered feminine personalities of whom Amphitrite was the best known. They were assigned the guardianship of the oceans by the great gods and invoked by seafarers. Also, they were attendants to PoseidonA.G.H.


Source:

Jordan, Michael, Encyclopedia of Gods, New York, Facts On File, Inc. 1993, p. 181

Napaeae

 


Napaeae were feminine animalistic spirits of the valleys, in Greco-Roman period, personalized and assigned the guardianship of fertile green valleys by the great gods. Usually they were invoked locally at small shrines. A.G.H.


Source:

Jordan, Michael, Encyclopedia of Gods, New York, Facts On File, Inc. 1993, p. 177

Mithras

 


Mithras was a god of soldiers, Greco-Roman. Derived from the Indian-Persian model, he was especially prominent among the military throughout the Roman Empire during the first and second centuries AD as a god symbolizing loyalty and truth. His rituals were performed in underground, cave-like temples, the mithraeum, and involved the sacrificing of a bull. Under Roman influence, Mithraism was an exclusive male cult. A.G.H.


Source:

Jordan, Michael, Encyclopedia of Gods, New York, Facts On File, Inc. 1993, p. 167

Mandulis

 


Mandulis, Greek sun god, Nubian, was mainly revered in the Greco-Roman cult. His most important sanctuary was at Kalabsha, near the Aswan High Dam, now relocated. A sanctuary for him was also constructed on the Greek island of Philae where he appeared to enjoy an association with IsisA.G.H.


Source:

Jordan, Michael, Encyclopedia of Gods, New York, Facts On File, Inc. 1993, p. 156

Leukothea

 


Leuthorea was a sea goddess, Greco-Roman, popular wither fishing communities along the Mediterranean coast. Probably derived from a mermaid, originally named Ino, and became the mortal daughter of Kadmos. She, according to legend, wet nursed Dionysus (Bacchus), but went insane and threw herself into the sea with her son Melikertes. In another version of this story she was escaping the wrath of Athanas, King of Thebes. The gods made her a goddess, and her son became the god PalaemonA.G.H.


Source:

Jordan, Michael, Encyclopedia of Gods, New York, Facts On File, Inc. 1993, p. 145

Hypsistos

 


Hypsistos, Greco-Roman, was a local tutelary god known from the legion of Bosphorus, ca. 150 BC until 250 AD. As late as the fourth century AD there are mentions in texts of hypsistarti in Cappadocia, who appears to have been unorthodox, Greek-speaking, Jewish fringe sectarians. The word hypsistos, occurring in the in the Septuagint version of the Vetus Testamentum, means “almighty.” A.G.H.


Source:

Jordan, Michael, Encyclopedia of Gods, New York, Facts On File, Inc. 1993, p. 110