Ganga goddess: Sacred River of Purity

Ganga is a Hindu river goddess, mentioned in Puranic tests, and guardian of the Ganges. The elder daughter of Himavan and Mena, she is the sister of Parvati and the consort of Vishnu and Agni. Ganga is regarded as the symbol of purity and is depicted with Brahma washing the foot of Vishnu Trivikrama. According to tradition she was a heavenly river brought to earth and caught by Vishnu in his hair to soften the shock of her fall. She rides on a fish or water monster. Her color is white, and attributes are the fly whisk, lotus, and water jar. A.G.H.


Ganga Hindu goddess

Ganga, revered as a sacred river and goddess in Hindu mythology, holds a prominent place in the cultural and spiritual landscape of India. She symbolizes purity and is integral to various mythological stories and religious practices.


Mythological Background

  • Daughter of Himavan and Mena: Ganga is considered the elder daughter of Himavan (the personification of the Himalayas) and Mena, situating her origins in the celestial realm.
  • Sister of Parvati: As the sibling of Parvati, the consort of Shiva, Ganga is connected to some of the most significant deities in Hinduism.


Role and Symbolism

  • River Goddess: Ganga personifies the Ganges River, one of the most sacred rivers in Hinduism, revered for its purifying qualities.
  • Symbol of Purity: She is regarded as a symbol of purity and cleansing, both spiritually and physically.
  • Consort of Vishnu and Agni: Ganga is associated with Vishnu, the preserver in the Hindu trinity, and Agni, the fire god, indicating her importance in the cosmic order.



  • Depiction: Ganga is often depicted as a beautiful goddess, symbolizing the life-giving and nourishing aspects of the river.
  • Attributes: She is commonly shown with a fly whisk, lotus, and water jar, each symbolizing different aspects of purity and divinity.
  • Mount: Ganga is depicted riding on a fish or a water monster, reinforcing her connection with water.


Involvement in Hindu Myths

  • Descent to Earth: A significant myth involves her descent from heaven to earth. According to tradition, Ganga was a heavenly river brought down to earth, and her fall was softened by Vishnu, who caught her in his hair.
  • Connection with Vishnu Trivikrama: She is involved in the story of Vishnu Trivikrama (Vishnu’s Vamana avatar), where Brahma washes the foot of Vishnu and the water becomes Ganga.


Religious Significance

  • Pilgrimage and Rituals: The Ganges River, embodying Ganga, is a central pilgrimage site for Hindus. Rituals like bathing in the Ganges, performing pujas (worship rituals), and immersing the ashes of the deceased are believed to purify the soul.
  • Festivals: Ganga is celebrated in numerous festivals and religious ceremonies, highlighting her role in Hindu worship and practices.


Modern Cultural Impact

  • Environmental Concerns: In contemporary times, reverence for Ganga has intersected with environmental issues, with efforts to preserve the purity and sanctity of the Ganges River.
  • Symbol in Arts and Literature: Ganga continues to inspire various forms of art, literature, and cultural expressions in India and beyond.




Jordan, Michael, Encyclopedia of Gods, New York, Facts On File, Inc. 1993, pp. 86-87