The ancients said this stone radiated a native light without reflection. They ranked it fifth behind diamonds, emeralds, opals, and pearls.
It is described among the gems ruled by the sun, and possesses both male and female properties–the former distinguished by the brightness that appears to be burning from within, while the latter expels the brightness.
It barrows no color from any other gem, but instead imparts its own. The virtues of the carbuncle are dispelling poisonous air, releasing luxury, preserving health of the body, and reconciling differences among friends. A.G.H.
Source: 81, 94.