Simulacra, in ancient Egypt, were paintings and statuettes of slaves, persons, animals, and sometimes other beings that were placed in tombs. The simulacra accompanied their masters into the other world where they would render them service and minister to their comfort.

Other generic meanings:

  • Unreal likeness, imitation not satisfactory.
  • Representation or image.


Source: 2, 269.



Shayba, the Arabic-Aramaean title of the Great Goddess, was the “Old Woman” whose spirit dwelt in the sacred stone of the Kaaba or Mecca. Shayba was the land-name and the Goddess-name of Arabian queens in the ancient seat of government, Marib in southern Arabia (now Yemen).Shebat was the Mesopotamian moon-goddess(a variation of Hebat or Eve), and the month named after her. In Assyria the ancient head of the family was called shebu, formerly a matriarch and later a tribal elder of either sex. A.G.H.


Walker, Barbara G. The Woman’s Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets. New York, HarperCollins, 1983. p. 931



Preanimism is thought to be the first feeling of fear, of awe, of wonder instigated by supernatural events. Also, it embodies the earliest beliefs that all objects are alive with life, energy, or spirits. A.G.H.

See also Animism definition

Sourcs: 2, 227.



Palengenesisis an ancient Greek term meaning, “becoming again,” as the seed of an oak tree recreates its parental oak. This identical life in cyclical recurring phases is the essential essence of the following phrase: being the continuous transmission of the same life-stream. Paracelsus believed that when a physical plant was destroyed its astral form remained and could be brought back to life through its ashes. A.G.H.


Riland, George. The New Steinerbooks Dictionary of Paranormal. New York, Warner Books, Inc., 1980. p. 214
Drury, Nevil. “Palingenesis” The Watkins Dictionary of Magic. London. Watkins Publishing. 2005 p. 224



Orphism is the teachings of an ancient Greek philosophical cult which exerted great influence on Greek culture, and later on Western mysticism and occultism. It began in the sixth century BC, and is attributed to the mythical Orpheus. The chief teachings are of reincarnation, a Greek version of Karma, a history of the universe which was formed by Cronus who formed an egg and created the first king of the gods — whom Zeus supplanted and fathered Dionysus — the divine child. Other teachings are that the body is the prison of the soul, animals were not to be killed or eaten, the good were to be rewarded while the evil were to be punished in Nether World, and teachings of self-denial and seriousness in religious matters. Apollo was the kindered god who demanded purification and righteousness. Orphism had a great impact on alchemyA.G.H.


Riland, George, The New Steinerbooks Dictionary of Paranormal, New York, Warner Books, Inc., 1980, p. 212

Orphic Literature


The writings from Orphism that inspired several Greek poets. However, the greatest work attributed to Orpheus or the Orphic writers is the work Rhapsodic Theogony. This work has been quoted numerous of times by many Neo-Platonic writers, and has been important in the history of mysticismalchemy and the occult. A.G.H.

Source: 2.



Nif was an Egyptian symbol in form of a ship’s sail widely spread; symbolizing breath. A.G.H.

Source: 81, 297.



Manes, in ancient roman times, was the name given to the collective souls of the dead who were believed to be “good” and worshiped as gods, particularly at the three important festivals-the FerallaPerentalia, and Lemuria. The deities of the underworld, Dis PaterOrcus, and Persephone also bore the name. However, later the name referred to individual souls of the dead, and their names were added to the grave inscriptions. A.G.H.


Ferlia. <>.

Lindemans, Micha F. <>.

Lindemans, Micha F. <>.

Lemuria. <>.

Parentalia. <>.

Riland, George.The New Steinerbooks Dictionary of Paranormal. New York Warner Books, Inc. 1980 p. 178

Krampus Legend


Who is Krampus?

You have probably heard about Santa and his little helpers, but what about his not-so-jolly sidekick, Krampus? This half-goat, half-demon creature appears in folklore in many forms. It usually appears with horns, brown or black hair on its body, cleft hooves, fangs and a long, pointed tongue. The creature is more commonly found in the Alps region, including Germany, Austria and Bavaria etc.



According to National Geographic, the name “Krampus” is derived from the German word “krampen” which translates to “claw.” The creature has roots in Norse and Greek mythologies.

Krampus aims to balance out the joy surrounding St. Nicholas with his evilness. Unlike St. Nicholas, more commonly known as Santa Claus in the North American regions, who rewards children for good behavior, Krampus punishes those children for being naughty.



Krampus carries chains, demonic bells of various sizes and bundles of birch branches or whips that he uses to swat naughty children with. Sometimes Krampus appears with a sack or a basket strapped to his back. He uses this to carry off evil children to the underworld as punishment for being wicked.


Celebrations and Events

The Feast of St. Nicholas is celebrated in several parts of Europe on 6th of December. On the evening before, that is 5th of December, Krampus Night or Krampusnacht is observed. According to tradition, on this night, the wicked hairy devil appears on the streets accompanying St. Nicholas and dispenses coal and other punishments amongst the wicked children.

Traditional events associated with Krampus Demon include parades and other events such as the Krampuslauf. Krampuslauf translates to Krampus run in English. In this event, young men participate dressed in horrifying costumes to impersonate Krampus. Such events are observed annually in several Alpine towns.


Disapproval of Krampus

Krampus’s frightening presence was suppressed for many years. The Catholic Church forbade the violent celebrations by declaring them unreligious. Fascists during the World War II forbade all celebrations related to Krampus in Europe as they found Krampus despicable and a creation of the Social Democrats. There has been public debate in Austria in modern times about whether Krampus is appropriate for children as it seems to promote a culture of violence and raucousness.


Revival of Celebrations Involving Krampus

Towards the end of the 20th century, Krampus’ popularity rose once again. Celebrations and events themed around Krampus have started to become a lot more common again. This revival began in Bavaria, possibly to promote the local, artistic tradition of hand-carved wooden masks.

His rise to popularity in the modern world is mainly because lately Krampus has made his way into pop culture. This is due to the ever-increasing number of people who have been looking for a different way to spend holidays, instead of participating in the same old traditions. In addition to this, some version of Krampus has been portrayed in several TV shows like “Supernatural,” “American Dad,” “The Office,” and “Grimm.” HE was also portrayed in a horror film in 2013 and another movie based on the terrifying creature is upcoming.



Krampus is also the title of a 2015 horror and comedy movie based on the folklore character. It is an american christmas film.





The ancient Egyptian name for the shadow, which at death was supposed to quit the body to continue to exit on it own. It was represented under the form of a sunshade. A.G.H.

Source: 9, 897.